The council has been created to advise the Scottish government on how it can tackle gender inequality.
It will be chaired by Louise Macdonald, chief executive of Young Scot.
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said securing equality was a “moral obligation”, as well as making economic sense.
Charities, government and business are represented on the Advisory Council on Women and Girls, which includes three members who are under 20 years old.
Ms Macdonald said gender inequality issues ranged from the pay gap to access to services for women and sexual harassment.
“A key role for the council is to offer insight but also to offer challenge,” she told BBC Scotland.
“So where is it that Scotland isn’t moving fast enough? Or where is the opportunity in Scotland where we really could transform something if we put more effort behind it collectively?
“It’s incredibly important that every girl and young woman, in Scotland not only believes they can be anything they want to be, but actually can.”
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