A report from the Crown Office said there were 284 charges aggravated by disability prejudice in 2017-18.
Racially-aggravated incidents remained the most common form of hate crime in Scotland over the period, with 3,249 charges filed.
However, the rate fell by 4% compared to 2016-2017 and reached its lowest level for 15 years.
Hate crime legislation currently covers offences aggravated by a victim’s race, religion, disability, sexual orientation and transgender identity.
According to the figures, sexual orientation-aggravated crime was the second most common type of hate crime, with 1,112 charges reported last year – an increase of 3% on the previous year.
Scotland’s Lord Advocate James Wolffe described such crimes as an “affront” to the community.
He said: “Crime motivated by hatred is not only a wrong against the individual, but is an affront to our collective values as a community, creating division and fear.”
He added: “It is encouraging that many victims of hate crime have the confidence to report this type of offending and we would encourage more to do so.”