Officers said traffickers are making potentially millions of pounds from sexually exploiting victims who are left “highly traumatised” by the experience.
The £25,000 campaign aims to raise public awareness of what may be going on “in plain sight” in their communities.
Since January 1 this year 44 women and two men have identified themselves as victims of trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation and came forward to seek support.
Of those, seven were girls under the age of 18.
Assistant Chief Constable Gillian MacDonald, crime and protection lead for Police Scotland, said: “Sexual exploitation, or prostitution, is highly lucrative for criminal gangs who exploit people and place them at risk of significant harm.
“People may reply to an advertisement offering work in Scotland and find themselves forced into prostitution for the financial gain of criminals.”
She added: “Sexual exploitation takes place behind closed doors.