Families on low incomes can now apply for the Best Start Grant, with applications opening on Monday.
It replaces the Sure Start Maternity Grant, which made a one-off payment of £500.
The grant will mean that eligible families will receive a payment of £600 for their first child, with £300 paid for the second and all subsequent children.
Individuals who receive the payment will be able to choose how to spend the money.
The application window has also been extended under the new system, up from 24 weeks pregnant to six months after the birth, giving clients longer to apply.
Alison Johnstone MSP, the Scottish Greens’ social security spokeswoman, welcomed the introduction of the new payment.
“Greens have played a key role in helping to set up the new social security system, ensuring that the reduction of poverty is one of the guiding principles,” said Ms Johnstone.
“That’s why it is great that this first new payment is launching as it will help families on lower incomes with the cost of raising a new child.
“I am also pleased that the heinous child cap is being removed and the payment can be made in respect of more than one child.
“We do need to look carefully at ensuring that everyone who is entitled can claim Best Start.
“Greens are encouraging everyone who believes they may be eligible to get in touch with Social Security Scotland and find out what they are entitled to.”
Social Security and Older People Secretary Shirley-Anne Somerville said: “If you are about to or have recently had a baby – I would encourage you to check if you are eligible and apply.