The population estimate in mid-2017 for the total population of Fife is 371,410, equivalent to 6.84% of the population of Scotland, with 48.5% of Fifers being male and 51.5% female.  The 3 main age groups[1] used in this report are:

Children make up 17% of Fifers; 62% are of Working Age and with an increase of 1% on the previous year, 21% are of Pensionable Age. The population structure of Fife maintains the previous year profile of having slightly young people (under 16) and older people, while having fewer people of working age than the national average.

Fife’s age groups: Count Percentage
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
All aged under 16 64333 33029 31304 17% 18% 16%
All aged under 18 72081 37071 35010 19% 21% 18%
All aged 16 & over 307077 147283 159794 83% 82% 84%
All aged 18 & over 299329 143241 156088 81% 79% 82%
Working age 230159 113548 116611 62% 63% 61%
Pension age 76918 33735 43183 21% 19% 23%
All aged 65 & over 74592 33735 40857 20% 19% 21%
All aged 75 & over 32089 13459 18630 9% 7% 10%
All aged 85 & over 8587 3027 5560 2% 2% 3%
All 371,410 180,312 191,098 48.5% 51.5%

Table 1 Age groups and sex structure of Fife in 2017

Source: NRS Estimated population mid-2017 (19 April 2018)

What do we know about Age and Equality?

It is important to know that age is not a defined by the Equality Act as a specific age group. It could be narrow or wide, or it could be relative, for example ‘younger than me’ and can be a particular age[2] or can be persons of a specific age (for example 40-year olds) or those belonging to a specific age group (for example 0-15 or 16-64-year-olds).

Interesting #EqualityFacts about Age and Fife’s Population

Patterns across age groups in the past year

Diminishing community cohesion

In 2017, there was a drop recorded by the Scottish Household Survey in the proportion of people reporting to belong ‘Very Strongly’ to their community. This compares to 2016 when the strength of belonging to community was reported lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole. 

Lower crime overall, except for sexual crimes and discrimination in working age

The rate of recorded crime in Fife tends to be lower than the national level across all types of crime, with the exception of Sexual Crimes, which is at a rate of 30 recorded per 10000 population. 

An additional 11% of households struggling financially

Fife households overall report to be managing less well than in the previous year (54% in 2017, compared to 65% in 2016) and the 65+ age group remains relatively better off (69% compared to 67% nationally), however this is noticeably lower than the 78% recorded in 2016. 

Children and Young People

Child poverty gap at 30.9%

The child poverty gap between the 10% most deprived and 10% least deprived areas in Fife is at -30.9%, dropping from 31.1% last year. This level is comparable to the national child poverty gap of -32.3%.

Access to health and dental care

Untreated dental decay is a persisting issue in Fife with 24% of P1 children with current decay in 2018, which is slightly above the national average.  Data for P7 children is also  consistent for this, with 32.72% of children inspected requiring to seek dental care in the near future due to history of tooth decay (i.e. receiving B letters from the NHS board). This compares with 2017 when across Scotland, 9.5% of P7 children had untreated decay, with the lowest being 1.6% in NHS Orkney to the highest being 14.4% in NHS Fife.

Ongoing issue in employment of younger people

Despite being the most highly educated generation in history, young people still systemically struggle in the labour market. This is a consistent pattern in Fife and at the national level[3]. The claimant count is high locally across all age groups, but this is higher for those aged 18-21 (5.8%) and also in to the 18-24 age group (5.5%).

Increase in Fifers of the 16-39 age group reporting experiencing discrimination

There was an increase in reported experiences of discrimination in the 16-39 age group from 9% in 2016 to 14% in 2017.

Adults of working age

Increase in Fifers of the 16-39 age group reporting experiencing discrimination

There was an increase in reported experiences of discrimination in the 16-39 age group from 9% in 2016 to 14% in 2017. Across other age groups this has adjusted to meet the lower national average, e.g. 40-59 age group reported in 2016 a lower experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average (2% vs 7%) and by 2017 this was identical at 6%.

Wages increasing slowly for full-time workers

By end 2018, people of working age who live in Fife were paid on average £543.40 per week for full time workers, less than Scotland’s average of £562.70 per week. A higher proportion in Fife of 18-24-year-olds are claiming benefits (5.5% vs 3.8% at Scotland level) and also 5.5% of 18-21 year-olds, increasing from May 2018.

Financial insecurity during working age

The 16-39 bracket was more likely to ‘get by’ (46%) or not manage well (10%), compared to households of older (65+) people, of which 69% managed well financially

Diminishing community cohesion

In 2017, there was a drop recorded by the Scottish Household Survey in the proportion of people reporting to belong ‘Very Strongly’ to their community. This compares to 2016 when the strength of belonging to community was reported lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole.

Older People

Health Inequality in older age by SIMD

There is also a marked difference in the number of emergency admissions of 65+ year olds, with 10,745 fewer admissions in 2015 in the 10% least deprived households in Fife compared to the most. 

Services responding to older people’s needs despite cuts

People that are 65+ on average tend to report local services positively and that the local authority provides services designed for needs and does its best with money available; with lower scores for people in the 16-39 and 40-64 age groups.

Diminishing financial security for older people

In 2017, 69% of households in Fife for which the age highest income householder was 65+ managed well financially, which is higher than the national average (67%) but is a considerable drop from 78% in 2016. Gender effects are present in this distribution with 60% of males managing well vs 46% of females.

More care hours but fewer recipients

Home care clients receive on average more hours of care in Fife, at 17.1 compared to 11.7 in Scotland. However the proportion of people aged 65+ receiving care is lower at 12.3 per 1000 in Fife compared 16.9 nationally.

Demography

Over the past 10 years, Fife has a seen an increase in the population of 3.5%, which is slowing down and less than Scotland’s average (4.9%) and much less than the City of Edinburgh (12.5%). Argyll and Bute has seen the biggest drop in population of -4.9%.

  Natural change Net civilian migration and other changes Percentage population change
Scotland 0.4 4.5 4.9
Argyll & Bute -3.7 -0.7 -4.4
Fife 0.7 2.8 3.5
City of Edinburgh 2.4 10.1 12.5

Table 2 Percent Population change in Fife, Other Councils and Scotland

Source: NRS Components of population change for council areas: mid-2007 to mid-2017

The tables below show a further breakdown of the population number distribution in 5-year groups for Fife and Scotland:

Children and Young People (0-14)

Area All Ages 0 – 4 5 – 9 10 – 14
Scotland 5,424,800 282,106 301,951 280,097
Fife 371,410 19,405 21,454 19,826
Males Scotland 2,640,300 145,116 154,124 143,480
Males Fife 180,312 9,994 11,001 10,154
Females Scotland 2,784,500 136,990 147,827 136,617
Females Fife 191,098 9,411 10,453 9,672

Table 3 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 0-14. Mid-2017 estimates

Working Age (including Young People (15-24) and Adults (25-64)

Area 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39
Scotland 290,040 356,609 382,248 355,080 339,053
Fife 20,533 24,391 22,081 20,913 21,828
Males Scotland 148,274 179,137 190,376 174,490 166,226
Males Fife 10,533 11,999 10,799 10,006 10,549
Females Scotland 141,766 177,472 191,872 180,590 172,827
Females Fife 10,000 12,392 11,282 10,907 11,279

Table 4 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 15-39. Mid-2017 estimates

Area 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 55 – 59 60 – 64
Scotland 325,033 385,070 407,049 378,886 329,011
Fife 21,964 26,805 27,986 26,456 23,176
Males Scotland 159,473 185,460 197,378 184,607 159,938
Males Fife 10,808 12,963 13,561 12,940 11,270
Females Scotland 165,560 199,610 209,671 194,279 169,073
Females Fife 11,156 13,842 14,425 13,516 11,906

Table 5 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 40-64. Mid-2017 estimates

Pensionable Age (includes Older People (65+) and Very Old People (90+)) 

Area 65 – 69 70 – 74 75 – 79 80 – 84 85 – 89 90+
Scotland 305,066 259,530 188,262 137,893 80,091 41,725
Fife 22,609 19,894 13,652 9,850 5,518 3,069
Males Scotland 147,373 122,353 83,611 57,034 29,462 12,388
Males Fife 10,787 9,489 6,255 4,177 2,080 947
Females Scotland 157,693 137,177 104,651 80,859 50,629 29,337
Females Fife 11,822 10,405 7,397 5,673 3,438 2,122

 Table 6 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 65-90+. Mid-2017 estimates

Source: NRS Estimated population by sex, five year age group and administrative area, mid-2017 Table 3 

Fife’s population has grown by 0.3% in the past year, which is slightly less than the national average:

 

 

 

Estimated population
30 June 2016
Births Deaths Natural change Estimated net civilian migration1 Other changes2
Scotland 5,404,700 53,436 57,246 -3,810 23,855 55
Fife 370,330 3,592 4,142 -550 1,524 106

 

 

 

 

Estimated population
30 June 2017
Population change
Number %
Scotland 5,424,800 20,100 0.4
Fife 371,410 1,080 0.3

Table 7 Population Change in Fife and Scotland

Source: NRS Estimated population by sex, five year age group and administrative area, mid-2017 Table 4

Population and recent migration (2015-2016)

There is a much smaller variation in migration numbers in Fife when compared to Scotland as a whole. The net migration to Fife in 2016 was +1524, less than last year’s total of +1608.

In-migration
 

 

Total Within Scotland Rest of UK Overseas
SCOTLAND2 80,468 n/a 47,568 32,900
Fife 11,165 6,443 3,042 1,680
Out-migration
 

 

Total Within Scotland Rest of UK Overseas
SCOTLAND2 56,613 n/a 37,113 19,500
Fife 9,641 6,246 2,386 1,009

Table 8 Migration to and from Fife and Scotland

Net migration
 

 

Total Within Scotland Rest of UK Overseas
SCOTLAND2 23,855 0 10,455 13,400
Fife 1,524 197 656 671

 Table 9 Migration from Fife and Scotland

Source: NRS (25 July 2018) Total Migration to or from Scotland

There are clear migration patterns for age groups, with the 15-19 age group had the highest migration into Fife (+734 net) and the 20-24 age group was the group with highest numbers leaving Fife (-365 net).

Figure 6 Fife migrant count, by single year of age, 2015-2017

Source: NRS (25 July 2018) Total Migration to or from Scotland

Migration patterns for age groups also intersect with race and/or ethnicity. Census data shows that people aged 16-34 were the ethnically diverse age group in Fife with 94% of those aged 16-24 and 93% of adults aged 25-34 describing themselves as ‘White Scottish, British or Other White’.

Figure 7 Migration and Race/Ethnicity

Source: Census 2011 Data Explorer

Just over 3% of the population aged 25-34 recorded their ethnic group as White Polish, and for the 16-24 group, 2.9% identify themselves as Asian. By contrast, older people in Fife were much less ethnically diverse with 99% of those aged 65 and over describing themselves as ‘White Scottish, British or Other White’ whilst only 0.4% were of ‘Asian’ ethnicity and a further 0.2% were ‘White Polish’. 

Population Projections: 2016 onwards

Fife’s population is expected to grow by 1.9% by 2026, which is slightly less than the Scottish average of 3.2%. Those figures rise to 2.6% and 5.3% respectively by 2041.

All ages
Area 2021 2026 2031 2036 2041
Scotland 1.9 3.2 4.3 4.9 5.3
Fife 1.2 1.9 2.5 2.6 2.6

Table 10 Population change for Fife and Scotland, 2021-2041, all ages

However, the distribution of the age in population changes is more marked, with Fife being expected to have an increase of +35.1% of people aged 75 and over in the next 10 years (compared to 27.3% nationally).

Figure 8 Projected percentage change in population aged 75 and over, by council area, 2016 to 2026.

Other noticeable population changes include an increase of +83.5% of Fifers over 75 by 2041 and a decrease of -5.1% of under 16s. Those figures indicate an increasingly ageing population:

Children (aged 0 to 15) Working age
Area 2021 2026 2031 2036 2041 2021 2026 2031 2036 2041
Scotland 2.2 1.7 0.2 -0.4 -1.5 3.6 3.2 3.5 1.6 1.1
Fife 1.1 -0.9 -3.3 -4.1 -5.1 2.7 1.5 1.4 -1.3 -2.6

 

Pensionable age and over Aged 75 and over
Area 2021 2026 2031 2036 2041 2021 2026 2031 2036 2041
Scotland -3.9 4.8 10.3 20.4 25.1 9.3 27.3 40.6 58.5 78.6
Fife -3.2 5.6 10.4 19.8 24.1 13.3 35.1 48.1 65.0 83.5

Table 11 Population change for Fife and Scotland, 2021-2041, by age groups

Source: NRS Population Projections for Scottish Areas (2016-based)

Comparison of Fife’s and Scotland population pyramids show a large increase in the 65+ and a large decrease in the 35-65 demographics over the next 25 years: 

Figure 9 Population projection pyramids for Fife and Scotland: 2014 and 2039

Source: NRS (2014-based)

Employment and Living Standards

Income and economic activity

By end 2018, people of working age who live in Fife were paid on average £543.40 per week for full time workers, less than Scotland’s average of £562.70 per week. A higher proportion in Fife of 18-24-year-olds are claiming benefits (5.5% vs 3.8% at Scotland level) and also 5.5% of 18-21 year-olds, increasing from May 2018.

Pay (in pounds) Fife Scotland
Gross Weekly  
Full-Time Workers 543.4 562.7
Male Full-Time Workers 574.0 599.0
Female Full-Time Workers 493.1 515.4
Hourly – Excluding Overtime  
Full-Time Workers 13.74 14.30
Male Full-Time Workers 14.06 14.66
Female Full-Time Workers 13.21 13.84

Table 12 Gross Weekly and Monthly Earnings in Fife and Scotland
Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife (November 2018)

(ONS annual survey of hours and earnings – workplace analysis)

Fife
(Level)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
Aged 16+ 8,590 3.7 2.7
Aged 16 To 17 55 0.7 0.5
Aged 18 To 24 1,830 5.5 3.8
Aged 18 To 21 1,830 5.5 3.8
Aged 25 To 49 4,620 4.1 2.9
Aged 50+ 2,080 2.7 2.2

 

December 2018  Fife
(Numbers)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
All People 8,590 3.7 2.7
Males 5,335 4.7 3.5
Females 3,255 2.7 2.0

Table 13 ONS Claimant count by age and gender – not seasonally adjusted

Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife (December 2018)

Inequality and deprivation

The socio-economic duty of the Equality Act 2010 coming into force in Scotland[4] is placing the duty on public authorities (and organisations providing a public service) to have due regard to reducing the inequalities of outcome which result from socio-economic disadvantage.

This change in legislation will enable to make interconnections between inequality, its components (e.g. income deprivation) and equality (protected characteristics). Measures of ‘inequality gaps’ are being developed to report this, similar to the gender or disability paygap. The most recent Community Planning Outcomes Profile update (May 2018) shows certain measures for age groups but no breakdown for further protected characteristics.

The child poverty gap between the 10% most deprived and 10% least deprived areas in Fife is at -30.9%, dropping from 31.1% last year. This level is comparable to the national child poverty gap of -32.3%.

There is also a marked difference in the number of emergency admissions of 65+ year olds, with 10,745 fewer admissions in 2015 in the 10% least deprived households in Fife compared to the most.

Fife’s 10% most deprived data zones 10% least deprived data zones
Child Poverty 36.1 5.2
Crime Rate 870.9 91.9
Depopulation 101.3 90.0
Early Mortality 632.1 265.3
Emergency Admissions 28534.4 17789.3
Positive Destinations 85.4 92.5
S4 Tariff Score 158.8 220.3

Table 14 Inequality gaps between 10% most/least deprived areas in Fife

Fife’s 10% most deprived data zones 10% least deprived data zones
Child Poverty 36.6 4.3
Crime Rate 874.6 190.4
Depopulation 99.6 90.8
Early Mortality 753.7 262.8
Emergency Admissions 35488.9 20168.3
Positive Destinations 86.5 94.6
S4 Tariff Score 169.1 230.3

Table 15 Inequality gaps between 10% most/least deprived areas in Scotland

Source: Improvement Service (2018) Community Planning Outcomes Profile

Poverty and components

The 2017 ‘Poverty in Scotland’[5] report showed that on average, poverty levels are lower in Scotland than in the rest of the UK. It also showed that there have been falls in poverty among pensioners and families with children have been greater.

Poverty rates vary across age groups: pensioners have the lowest poverty rate, followed by working-age people without children. Poverty is highest amongst families with children.

Figure 10 Poverty Rate changes across age groups, Scotland

Source: JRF (2017) Poverty in Scotland 3

 Figure 11 Proportion of working-age adults living in in relative income poverty (after housing costs) by household type, Scotland

Source: JRF (2017) Poverty in Scotland 3

Figure 12 Poverty Rate changes across households, Scotland

Source: JRF (2017) Poverty in Scotland 3

 The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation is most commonly used tool for identifying the most deprived zones in Scotland. The SIMD 2016 data shows local-national trends, with 11% of the working age population employment deprived in Fife (10.8% for Scotland) and 12.4% of the population are income deprived in Fife (12.3% for Scotland)[6].

In the poorest fifth of the population, 1 in 3 people spend more than a third of their income on housing, impacting severely their disposable income. Also, the attainment gap for children from the most and least deprived areas is large and increases over time.

Nearly one in five adults in the poorest fifth of the population experience anxiety or depression, far higher than in those who are better off and the majority do not have any savings or investments, and are not building up a pension.

However as the SIMD is a relative ranking between different areas, it does not directly inform on the lived experience of poverty in one area (for a detailed breakdown see KnowFife’s SIMD page here) or variation across the protected characteristics within those areas. More understanding about poverty can be derived from its components.

In official government statistics, ‘poverty’ has usually been defined as ‘household income below 60% of the UK median’[7]. More recent Scottish government statistics define ‘low income’ as household income below 70% of the Scottish median after housing cost[8]. These will include detailed breakdowns of for households across local authorities in Scotland. Other components to consider include:

Material deprivation

This indicates being unable to afford 3 or more necessities from a list of 22 (e.g. £500 to deal with an unexpected expense or a child having a warm winter coat) for the local measure, being unable to afford three or more necessities is the best definition of material deprivation.

In 2016, 24.1% of children in Fife lived in households with limited resources, with is markedly above the Scottish average of 20.4%.

Area After housing costs Before housing costs
% 95% C.I. lower limit 95% C.I. upper limit % 95% C.I. lower limit 95% C.I. upper limit
Fife 24.1 15.5 32.7 21.9 13.5 30.2
Scotland 20.4 18.4 22.4 18.0 16.1 19.9

Table 16 Children in families with limited resources in Fife and Scotland

Source: Children in families with limited resources across Scotland 2014-2016

Household food insecurity

This is defined as “the inability of one or more members of a household to consume an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food that is useful for health in socially acceptable ways, or the uncertainty that they will be able to do so”.[9]

UK data from the Food Standard Agency’s Food and Your Survey it was estimated that 24,300 adults aged 16 and over in Fife could live in low or very low food secure households. In 2016, an estimated 12,100 food parcels were given out in Fife to 22,300 adults and children[10].

Fuel Poverty at home

A household is described as experiencing fuel poverty if “in order to maintain a satisfactory heating regime, it would be required to spend more than 10% of its income on all household fuel use. If over 20% of income is required, then this is termed as being in extreme fuel poverty”[11]

 With around 35% of households in Fife in fuel poverty, this is slightly greater than the proportion of all households in Scotland that are fuel poor (31%). Noticeably, Fuel Poverty is higher for Fifers living in flats (38%), 1 or 2-bedroom homes (41%) and those renting privately (42%). On average, fuel poverty is reducing from the previous years.

Household Attributes
    Age of Dwelling House or Flat Number of Bedrooms
Area % of LA Pre-1945 Post 1945 House Flat 2 or fewer 3+
In Fuel Poverty
Fife 35% 44% 31% 34% 38% 41% 29%
 Scotland 31% 36% 28% 33% 27% 31% 31%
In Extreme Fuel Poverty
Fife 8% 10% 7% 9% 4% 7% 9%
Scotland 8% 11% 7% 10% 6% 7% 10%

Table 17 Fuel Poverty in households in Fife and Scotland – Age, Houses, Flats, Bedroom count

Household Attributes
    Tenure Household Type
Area % of LA Owner-occupied Social Housing Private Rented Older Families Other
In Fuel Poverty
Fife 35% 33% 37% 42% 49% 13% 33%
 Scotland 31% 29% 35% 31% 45% 17% 29%
In Extreme Fuel Poverty
Fife 8% 10% 3% 8% 14% * 6%
Scotland 8% 9% 6% 9% 13% 3% 8%

Table 18 Fuel Poverty in households in Fife and Scotland – Tenure and Type of Households

Source: SHCS Local Authority Analysis 2014-2016 (28 Feb 2018)

An aspect of how poverty relates to the age characteristic is monitored through current work on child poverty. The End Child Poverty report for instance indicates that, after housing costs considered an estimated 24.47% of children (17,667) live in poverty in Fife[12]. The table below shows the variation in levels across Fife wards:

Percentage of children in poverty, July-Sept 2017 Before housing costs After housing costs
Local Authority and wards* Number of children  

%

Number of children  

%

Fife 11,132 15.42% 17,667 24.47%
West Fife and Coastal Villages 430 12.41% 690 19.92%
Dunfermline North 307 12.39% 492 19.88%
Dunfermline Central 419 10.67% 677 17.24%
Dunfermline South 599 10.82% 967 17.47%
Rosyth 412 12.76% 661 20.47%
Inverkeithing and Dalgety Bay 359 10.55% 580 17.05%
The Lochs 609 21.02% 948 32.75%
Cowdenbeath 477 16.52% 755 26.13%
Lochgelly and Cardenden 488 17.24% 772 27.27%
Burntisland, Kinghorn and Western Kirkcaldy 391 13.57% 624 21.67%
Kirkcaldy North 500 14.31% 796 22.81%
Kirkcaldy Central 618 20.77% 962 32.35%
Kirkcaldy East 704 25.34% 1,075 38.68%
Glenrothes West and Kinglassie 765 18.27% 1,202 28.72%
Glenrothes North, Leslie and Markinch 616 17.52% 966 27.50%
Glenrothes Central and Thornton 580 19.78% 906 30.87%
Howe of Fife and Tay Coast 304 11.64% 489 18.73%
Tay Bridgehead 303 11.23% 487 18.09%
St Andrews 151 11.20% 244 18.05%
East Neuk and Landward 329 15.91% 518 25.03%
Cupar 255 9.56% 414 15.52%
Leven, Kennoway and Largo 512 14.89% 815 23.73%
Buckhaven, Methil and Wemyss Villages 940 23.76% 1,448 36.62%

Table 19 Percentage of children in poverty in Fife and local wards, July-Sept 2017

Source: End Child Poverty (January 2018) 

Household Finances

Fife households report to be managing less well than last year (54% now, compared to 65% in 2016), with the 65+ age group remaining the most better off (69% compared to 67% nationally) but this also dropped from 78% in 2016. 

Fife 2017
Male Female All Gender 16-39 40-64 65+ All Age
% Manages well 60 46 54 44 50 69 54
% Gets by 33 45 38 46 39 28 38
% Does not manage well 8 8 8 10 10 3 8
Scotland 2017
Male Female All Gender 16-39 40-64 65+ All Age
% Manages well 60 51 56 49 53 67 56
% Gets by 33 39 35 40 36 30 35
% Does not manage well 7 10 9 11 11 3 9

Table 20 How the household is managing financially by sex and age of highest income householder

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.13 [01 Nov 2018] 

Housing and age groups

2-persons households are the majority of households in Fife (36.6%) while Scotland’s average is 1-person households at 34.7%, closely followed by 2-person households at 34%. The majority are owner-residents (64.8%) however there is a higher proportion of council housing renters in Fife than in Scotland (18% vs 13.2).

Fife Scotland
Total number of households (with residents) 160,952 2,372,777
% 1 person 31.8 34.7
% 2 people 36.6 34.0
% 3 people 15.3 15.1
% 4 people 11.6 11.5
% 5 people 3.6 3.7
% 6 or more people 1.1 1

 

  Fife Scotland
Total number of households (with residents) 160,952 2,372,777
% Owned 64.8 62.0
% Rented from Council 18.0 13.2
% Other social rented 4.9 11.1
% Private rented 11.2 12.4
% Living rent free 1.1 1.3

Table 21  Housing distribution in Fife and Scotland

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

 Age groups are on average distributed across households and communal establishments as would be expected. The 18-19 & 20-24 is the main age groups living in communal establishments (21.4% & 24.5%, i.e. 45.9%), followed by 8.9% of 85-89 year olds.

 Children

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%
0 to 4 20,763 5.8% 12 0.2%
5 to 9 19,149 5.4% 7 0.1%
10 to 11 7,675 2.1% 13 0.2%
12 to 14 12,417 3.5% 81 1.0%
15 4,228 1.2% 52 0.7%

 Table 22 Children living in households and communal establishments in Fife

Working Age

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%
16 to 17 8,660 2.4% 192 2.5%
18 to 19 7,874 2.2% 1,658 21.4%
20 to 24 22,240 6.2% 1,901 24.5%
25 to 29 20,338 5.7% 464 6.0%
30 to 34 20,631 5.8% 156 2.0%
35 to 39 22,947 6.4% 88 1.1%
40 to 44 27,356 7.7% 89 1.1%
45 to 49 27,912 7.8% 95 1.2%
50 to 54 26,057 7.3% 95 1.2%
55 to 59 22,890 6.4% 91 1.2%
60 to 64 24,854 7.0% 142 1.8%

 Table 23 People of working age living in households and communal establishments in Fife

Older People 

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%

65 to 69
19,407 5.4% 122 1.6%
70 to 74 15,441 4.3% 211 2.7%
75 to 79 12,078 3.4% 347 4.5%
80 to 84 8,185 2.3% 545 7.0%
85 to 89 4,500 1.3% 688 8.9%
90 to 94 1,493 0.4% 484 6.2%
95 and over 345 0.1% 225 2.9%

 Table 24 People over 65 living in households and communal establishments in Fife

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland.
Table DC1104SC – Residence type by sex by age
(Fife) 

Carers

The 2011 census reports 34,828 carers in Fife, which at 9.5% of the population is directly comparable to the national average (9.3%), along with other trends that are also similar: the majority of carers are female (59.3%), employed (51.9%) and 19.9% are aged 65 or over, with 5.4% of Fifers aged 65+ care for over 35 hours a week. A higher proportion of males ages 50-64 provide care in Fife compared to Scotland (36.9% vs 34.9%).

  Fife Scotland
% Carers who are female 59.3 59.2
% Carers who are employed (excluding full-time students) 51.9 53.2
% Carers aged under 16 1.9 2.0
% Carers aged 65 and over 19.9 19.3

Table 25 Proportion of Carers in Fife by gender, employment, under 16 and over 65

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Fife Number of people Age group % Male / Female %
Age Male Female Male Female Male Female
0 to 24 1,030 1,370 7.3% 6.6% 42.9% 57.1%
25 to 49 4,660 7,870 32.8% 38.1% 37.2% 62.8%
50 to 64 5,230 7,750 36.9% 37.5% 40.3% 59.7%
65+ 3,270 3,650 23.0% 17.7% 47.3% 52.7%
All people 14,190 20,640 100.0% 100.0% 40.7% 59.3%

Table 26 Proportion of Carers in Fife by age group and gender

Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based) 

Fife Level of care provided per week
Age 0 hours 1-19 hours 20-34 hours 35+ hours Total % of carers
0 to 24 97.8% 1.5% 0.3% 0.5% 100.0% 2.2%
25 to 49 89.6% 5.9% 1.0% 3.5% 100.0% 10.4%
50 to 64 82.5% 10.9% 1.5% 5.1% 100.0% 17.5%
65 and over 89.2% 4.4% 1.0% 5.4% 100.0% 10.8%
All people 90.5% 5.4% 0.9% 3.3% 100.0% 9.5%

 Table 27 Age groups of people who provide >0 hours of care in Fife

Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based) –

Health and Social Care[13]

General Health

Between 2014-2017, 72% of adults in Fife report to have very good or good health, slightly lower than the national average. 20% reported fair health, and 8% bad or very bad health.

Figure 13 Self-assessed general health, Fife adults, 2013-2016 combined
Source: Scottish Health Survey (25 September 2018)

The 2011 census showed that health profiles in Fife are closely related to Scotland’s as a whole. For instance, the average age of a person in Fife is 40.8 years, slightly above Scotland’s (40.3), and the average of Fifers with good or very good health is also slightly above (36.6 vs 36.2). A noticeable difference is that 67.9% people report as living with no condition in Fife, compared to 70.1% across Scotland. As expected, the proportion of people living with a limiting health condition increases with age, from the 50-54 group onwards at 26% (the average across all age groups is 20%).

  Fife Scotland
Average age 40.8 40.3
Average age of a person with good or very good health 36.6 36.2
Average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness 59.3 59.2
Average age of carer 51.3 50.7
Percentage of households with one or more carers resident 16.8 16.0

Table 28 Health facts for Fife and Scotland

  Fife Scotland
% Very good health 50.8 52.5
% Good health 31.0 29.7
% Fair health 12.8 12.2
% Bad health 4.2 4.3
% Very bad health 1.2 1.3

Table 29 General health facts for Fife and Scotland

Fife Scotland
% Limited a lot 9.5 9.6
% Limited a little 10.8 10.1
% Not limited 79.7 80.4

Table 30 Proportion of peopled who are limited in day to day activities – Fife and Scotland

Fife Scotland
% With no condition 67.9 70.1
% With one or more long-term health conditions 32.1 29.9
% With deafness or partial hearing loss 7.3 6.6
% With blindness or partial sight loss 2.5 2.4
% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome) 0.5 0.5
% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia) 2.4 2.0
% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome) 0.7 0.6
% With physical disability 7.2 6.7
% With mental health condition 4.1 4.4
% With other condition 20.3 18.7

Table 31 Long-term health condition – Fife and Scotland

Fife All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Table 32 Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group, Fife

Source: NHS Fife (September 2016) Fife Population; an analysis by protected characteristics

Social Care

Home care clients in Fife receive on average more hours of care, at 17.1 compared to 11.7 in Scotland. The proportion of people aged 65+ receiving care is lower at 12.3 per 1000 in Fife compared 16.9 nationally.

2015 2016 2017
Number of clients 3,620 3,720 3,660
Total hours* 54,160 55,550 62,610
Hours per client 15.0 14.9 17.1
 
Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours 580 670 890
Populations aged 65+ 72,400 72,400 72,400
Rate per 1,000 population 8.0 9.3 12.3

Table 33 Number of home care clients and hours provided/purchased, Fife

2015 2016 2017
Number of clients 61,500 59,780 59,640
Total hours* 700,300 676,520 696,620
Hours per client 11.4 11.3 11.7
 
Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours 17,570 16,630 16,910
Populations aged 65+ 983,000 998,900 998,900
Rate per 1,000 population 17.9 16.6 16.9

Table 34 Number of home care clients and hours provided/purchased, Scotland

Source: Social Care Survey 2017 (19 Dec 2017)

Life Expectancy

In Fife, life expectancy at birth was higher for females (81.2 years) than for males (77.6 years) in 2014-16. Male life expectancy at birth has increased more rapidly than female life expectancy at birth between 2001-03 and 2014-16. In Fife, life expectancy at birth is higher than at Scotland level for both females and males.

Figure 14 Life Expectancy at birth, by gender in Fife
Source: NRS (June 2018) Fife Profile

Healthy Life Expectancy

Life expectancy (LE[14]) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE[15]) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. In Fife, Life Expectancy at birth is 79 and while Healthy Life Expectancy being is 64.3. This means a person is likely to experience 14 years of ‘not healthy’ years in old age (65+) and this is similar to the national average:

  LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected ‘not healthy’ years
LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
Fife 79.04 78.85 79.23 64.34 64.25 64.44 14.69
Scotland 78.77 78.72 78.82 64.21 64.18 64.23 14.56

Table 35 Life table for life expectancy and healthy life expectancy calculations, Fife and Scotland 5-year period 2009-2013

Source: ScotPHO Health life expectancy: local authorities (12 December 2017)

 In Fife, the number of probable suicides recorded has been going down over the past 5 years (with 43 recorded in 2016) and increased in 2017 to 7.6% the highest recorded:

Year All Scotland Fife
2011 889 63 7.1%
2012 830 58 7.0%
2013 795 68 8.6%
2014 696 58 8.3%
2015 672 41 6.1%
2016 728 43 5.9%
2017 680 52 7.6%

Table 36 Number and proportions of probable suicides in Fife

Source: NRS (2017) Probable Suicides Table 5

Justice and Personal Security

Between 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, there was an overall decrease in recorded crime across Scotland of +1% and of +4% in Fife. The largest rise in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17 was in Falkirk (+15%).

Previously, there was an overall decrease in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17 across Scotland that was reflected in 20 of the 32 local authorities, with 11 experiencing an increase and one with very little change from the previous year. The largest rise in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17 was in Midlothian (12%) where 78% of the increase was accounted for by a rise in Crimes of dishonesty and Other crimes. Fife saw very little change in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17:

Figure 15 Change in recorded crime in Fife and other local authorities

Source: Police Recorded Crime in Scotland, 2017-18

Inequality and Crime

The gap in crime rates between the least and most deprived areas in Fife and Scotland has been increasing since 2010/2011. This has slowed down nationally but is still widening in Fife:

Figure 16 Crime Rate in 10% most and least deprived in Fife and Scotland

Source: Improvement Service (2018) Community Planning Outcomes Profile

SCJS Motivations and characteristics of crime

The Scottish Justice and Crime Survey (SCJS) is distinct and complementary to police recorded crime, which changes in public reporting practices, police recording practices and, in part, police deployment and activity. Not all crimes are reported the police (such as hate incidents and hate crime) and the SCJS give a bit more detail on the characteristics of crime around harassment and discrimination. There is no Fife-level breakdown at this time, however across Scotland, we know that the majority of harassment victims experienced verbal abuse (86%), followed by threats of violence:

Figure 17 Proportion of harassment victims experiencing different kinds of behaviour in Scotland (2017)

Source: Scottish Crime & Justice Survey 2016/17: (27 March 2018) Main Findings p13

 Age was cited as motivator for 8% of respondents, while 12% of victims of harassment thought that their gender, gender identity or perception of this was a possible motivating factor – the most commonly suggested influence. However, the increase from 6% is not statistically significant due to low numbers. More than half of harassment victims in 2016/17 (57%) did not think any of their characteristics were an influencing factor in their encounters:

Figure 18 What respondents thought any experiences of harassment in last year were or may have been motivated by (2017)

Source: Scottish Crime & Justice Survey 2016/17: (27 March 2018) Main Findings p13 

2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2012/13 2014/15 2016/17
All 20.40% 19.30% 17.80% 16.90% 14.50% 13.40%
Male 21.20% 20.40% 18.40% 18.20% 15.60% 13.90%
Female 19.70% 18.20% 17.20% 15.80% 13.60% 13.00%
16-24 32.20% 26.40% 25.60% 23.70% 20.40% 19.50%
25-44 24.70% 25.10% 22.30% 21.60% 18.40% 17.30%
45-59 20.10% 18.80% 17.60% 16.30% 15.30% 12.70%
60+ 9.50% 9.20% 8.70% 8.80% 6.80% 7.20%
15% most deprived areas 26.00% 25.20% 21.30% 21.30% 21.20% 19.40%
Rest of Scotland 19.40% 18.30% 17.20% 16.10% 13.40% 12.30%
Urban 22.20% 20.90% 19.50% 18.60% 15.50% 14.80%
Rural 13.00% 12.10% 10.20% 9.40% 9.90% 6.80%

 Table 37 Proportion of adults experiencing SCJS crime in Scotland

Source: Scottish Crime & Justice Survey 2016/17 (27 March 2018): Main Findings p22

Characteristics of Offenders

The Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2016/17  reports that where victims could provide information about the offender, offenders were much more likely to be male (78%) than female (13%). There are clear age patterns with vandalism being the most reported to be towards people under 16, and most violent crime or assault from people aged between 25-39.

 
Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime
Gender
Male 69% 84% 78%
Female 12% 13% 13%
People of both sexes 16% 2% 8%
Don’t know 3% 1%
Refused

 

  Total Property Crime Vandalism Violent Crime Assault
Under 16 19% 26% 43% 140 136
Aged between 16-24 29% 26% 26% 14% 14%
Aged between 25-39 26% 23% 16% 32% 32%
Aged 40 or over 23% 17% 15% 29% 28%
Don’t know 4% 9% 1% 27% 27%
Refused
None

 Table 38 Percentage of SCJS crimes where respondent was able to say anything about  offender(s), Scotland

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2016/17 (27 March 2018)Table 3.14

Discrimination and Harassment

There was an increase in reported experiences of discrimination in the 16-39 age group from 9% in 2016 to 14% in 2017. Across other age groups this has adjusted to meet the lower national average, e.g. 40-59 age group reported in 2016 a lower experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average (2% vs 7%)[16] and by 2017 this was identical at 6%.

  Discrimination % Harassment %
  Yes No Yes No
Fife 2017        
16-39 14 86 11 89
40-59 6 94 6 94
60+ 4 96 2 98
All 8 92 6 94
Scotland 2017
16-39 9 91 8 92
40-59 8 92 6 94
60+ 3 97 3 97
All 7 93 6 94

Table 39 Experience of discrimination and harassment in Fife and Scotland by age group

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.13 [01 Nov 2018]

Participation

Access to local services

People are 65+ on average tend to report local services positively and that the local authority provides services designed for needs and does its best with money available. Lower scores are reported for people in the 16-39 and 40-64 age groups however. This compares to the 2016 Scottish Household Survey, with a marked drop in the 65+ age group rating communication positively from 61% to 51%, along with ‘high quality services’ falling from 60% to 50%.

Figure 19 Percentage agreeing with various statements about local council services

16-39 40-64 65+ All
Fife 2017
Good at communicating services 42 44 51 45
High quality services 38 48 50 45
Good at communicating performance 31 35 46 36
Services designed for needs 44 35 56 43
Does its best with money available 44 45 55 47
Addressing key issues 34 36 49 38
Good at listening 26 25 39 28
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 30 31 23 29
I want greater involvement in decisions 34 40 24 34

 

Scotland 2017
Good at communicating services 39 42 49 43
High quality services 41 38 44 41
Good at communicating performance 28 36 42 34
Services designed for needs 38 34 40 37
Does its best with money available 34 40 48 39
Addressing key issues 31 31 37 33
Good at listening 23 22 26 24
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 24 23 19 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 38 35 22 33

Table 40 Percentage agreeing with various statements about local council services

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 9.3 [01 Nov 2018] 

Social and community cohesion

In Fife and Scotland in 2017, the Scottish Household Survey reports a drop across all age groups for people reporting to belong ‘Very Strongly’ to their community. This compares to 2016 when the strength of belonging to community was reported lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole.

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2017
Age
16-39 21 46 24 6 2
40-59 21 61 13 6
60+ 42 48 9 0
All 21 46 24 6 2
Scotland 2017
Age
16-39 24 46 21 7 2
40-59 35 45 15 5 0
60+ 47 39 10 3 1
All 24 46 21 7 2

Table 41 Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.17 [01 Nov 2018]

[1] Other age ranges are used where most relevant, such as 16-24 for Young People in education, or 85+ for Very Old People in care.

[2] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p6

[3] Scottish government (2017) The Life Chances of Young People in Scotland

[4] The Equality Act 2010 (Authorities subject to the Socioeconomic Inequality Duty) (Scotland) Regulations 2018

[5] JRF (2017) Poverty in Scotland

[6] KnowFife SIMD2016 Quick Brief

[7] Scottish Government (9 June 2017) Poverty equality analysis.

[8] Scottish Government (28 November 2017) Children in families with limited resources across Scotland 2014-2016

[9] Fife Health and Wellbeing Alliance (August 2017) Food Poverty and Food Insecurity in Fife.

[10] Fife Health and Wellbeing Alliance (August 2017) Food Poverty and Food Insecurity in Fife.

[11] Scottish Government (2002) The Scottish Fuel Poverty Statement

[12] End Child Poverty (January 2018) – Local Data

[13] Please note: all the information in this section is based on the Scotland’s Census 2011

[14] Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points

[15] As above

[16] See Scottish Household Survey – Annual Report 2016 – LA Tables https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/16002/LAtables2016