Equality in Fife: Age and Population


Age is not a defined by the Equality Act as an age group; it could be narrow or wide. It could be relative, for example ‘younger than me’, and can be a particular age[1]. It can be person of a specific age (for example 40 year olds) or belonging to a specific age group (for example 0-15 or 16-64-year-olds).

Where possible 3 main age groups are used in this report for convenience and local relevance: 0-15, 16-64 years, and 65 and over. Other age ranges are also used where relevant (e.g. 16-24 for Young People in relation to Education, or 85+ for Very Old People in relation to care).

Population characteristics and demography used throughout this report include size (count), density (proportion, by percentage), dispersion (age structure) and other relevant measures where available, e.g. Birth rate, Mortality, Migration etc. Comparison to national and other local authorities are also included where this helps draw a picture of Fife’s characteristics.

Interesting facts about Age

  • 17% of Fifers are aged 0-15, 63% are 16-64, 20% are aged 65+
  • 1 in 5 children (19.8%) are in low income families
  • The 15-19 age group had the highest migration into Fife (+681 net)
  • Fife has a higher proportion of claimants aged 18-21 (4.4%) than Scotland
  • The lowest employment rate is in the 16-24 age group at 52.1%, which is also lower than the national average 55.7%.
  • The 20-24 age group had the group with highest numbers leaving Fife (-481)
  • 37 is the average age of a person with good or very good health
  • The average age is 40.8, and the median age is 41 for males 42 for females
  • the 40-49 age group reported a noticeable lower experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average (2% vs 7%):
  • 51 is the average age of a carer, most of which provide between 1-19 hours unpaid care per week
  • 59 is the average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness
  • Fife’s 65+ population in employment in 2016 is at its highest (10.3%) of the past 10 years
  • Over 60% of people aged 65+ describe Fife Council as good at communicating services, do its best with money available and addressing key issues
  • 9% of Fifers are of Pensionable Age, which is slightly above Scotland’s average of 18.5%
  • In 2017, there was a net migration to Fife of older persons (85-59 and 90+)
  • 8% of people aged 65 and over in Fife have high levels of care needs who are cared for at home, compared to 22.7% nationwide
  • For 65+ year olds Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Emergency Admission rate than the rest of Scotland, although this gap is diminishing

Demography

The latest population estimates for the total population of Fife is 370,330, 48.5% of which are male and 51.5% female. Children make up 17.4% of Fifers; while 62.7% are of Working Age, and 19.9% of Pensionable Age. The population structure of Fife has more younger people, more older people, and fewer people of working age than the national average.

Fife Scotland
Estimated population (2016) 370,330 5,404,700
(as %) 6.85%
% Males 48.5 48.6
% Females 51.5 51.4
Median age – Females 42 42
Median age – Males 41 40
   
% Aged 0-15 (Children) 17.4 16.9
% Aged 16-64 (Working Age) 62.7 64.6
% Aged 65+ (Pensionable Age) 19.9 18.5

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

Over the past 10 years, Fife has a seen an increase in the population of 3.7%, which is slightly less than Scotland’s average (5.3%) and much less than the City of Edinburgh (12.2%). Argyll and Bute has seen the biggest drop in population of -4.1%.

Area 2006 Population 2016 Population % Change
Argyll and Bute 90,870 87,130 -4.1%
Fife 357,260 370,330 3.7%
Scotland 5,133,100 5,404,700 5.3%
City of Edinburgh 452,060 507,170 12.2%

Source: NRS (2 August 2017) Annual Review of Demographic Trends Table 1.6 

The tables below show a further breakdown of the population distribution in Fife:

Children and Young People

0 – 4   5 – 9   10 – 14
Scotland 287,238 5% 298,862 6% 274,378 5%
Fife 19,806 5% 21,308 6% 19,349 5%
Males 10,157 6% 10,906 6% 9,948 6%
Females 9,649 5% 10,402 5% 9,401 5%

Working Age (including Young People (15-24) and Adults (25-64)

15 – 19   20 – 24   25 – 29  
Scotland 298,660 6% 363,967 7% 374,124 7%
Fife 21,090 6% 24,388 7% 21,612 6%
Males 10,687 6% 12,020 7% 10,466 6%
Females 10,403 5% 12,368 6% 11,146 6%

 

30 – 34   35 – 39
Scotland 351,913 7% 327,753 6%
Fife 21,077 6% 21,253 6%
Males 10,197 6% 10,280 6%
Females 10,880 6% 10,973 6%

 

40 – 44   45 – 49   50 – 54  
Scotland 337,638 6% 392,251 7% 406,691 8%
Fife 22,985 6% 27,380 7% 27,788 8%
Males 11,190 6% 13,408 7% 13,327 7%
Females 11,795 6% 13,972 7% 14,461 8%

 

55 – 59   60 – 64  
Scotland 370,821 7% 321,552 6%
Fife 25,934 7% 22,702 6%
Males 12,779 7% 10,956 6%
Females 13,155 7% 11,746 6%

Pensionable Age (includes Older People (65+) and Very Old People (90+))

65 – 69 70 – 74   75 – 79  
Scotland 317,524 6% 239,019 4% 186,846 3%
Fife 23,935 6% 18,180 5% 13,430 4%
Males 11,517 6% 8,633 5% 6,060 3%
Females 12,418 7% 9,547 5% 7,370 4%

 

80 – 84   85 – 89   90+
Scotland 136,418 3% 77,978 1% 41,067 1%
Fife 9,600 3% 5,503 1% 3,010 1%
Males 4,105 2% 2,030 1% 886 0%
Females 5,495 3% 3,473 2% 2,124 1%

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

Life Events: Births, Stillbirths, Deaths, Marriages and Civil Partnerships

Fife has a slightly higher birth-rate than Scotland as a whole (10.2 vs 10.1 per 1000). The rates of perinatal, neonatal and infant death are noticeably higher than the national average.

Area Live births Stillbirths
Both sexes Males Females Number Rate
Number Rate
Scotland 54,488 10.1 28,236 26,252 236 4.3
Fife 3,739 10.2 1,930 1,809 19 5.1

 

Area Perinatal deaths Neonatal deaths Infant deaths
Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Scotland 335 6.1 146 2.7 181 3.3
Fife 34 9.0 20 5.3 24 6.4

 

Area Deaths
Both sexes Males Females
Number Rate
Scotland 56,728 10.6 27,761 28,967
Fife 4,091 11.1 1,968 2,123

Source: NRS: Births, Deaths and Other Vital Events  Preliminary Annual Figures 2016)

Population and recent migration (2014-2016)

There is a much smaller variation in migration numbers in Fife when compared to Scotland as a whole. The net migration to Fife in 2016 was +1608.

NET MIGRATION 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Scotland 26,075 30,209 12,738 9,962 17,585 27,968 31,693
Fife 1,806 2,076 623 304 650 1,228 1,608

There are clear migration patterns for age groups:

  • The 15-19 age group had the highest migration into Fife (+681 net)
  • The 20-24 age group was the group with highest numbers leaving Fife (-421 net)
  • Glasgow City had the highest net migration of +7963, with +4,540 in the 20-24 age group
  • Aberdeen City had a net migration of -969 (i.e. 969 people moved out of the council area), with -625 in the 30-34 age group
Area All Ages 0 – 4 5 – 9 10 – 14
Scotland 31,693 2,369 1,521 1,059
Aberdeen City -969 -237 -66 -28
Fife 1,608 178 104 51
Glasgow City 7,963 -471 -51 94

 

Area All Ages 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39
Scotland 31,693 5,345 7,653 4,149 3,097 1,996
Aberdeen City -969 1,272 179 -469 -625 -282
Fife 1,608 681 -421 83 269 192
Glasgow City 7,963 2,887 4,540 1,848 -71 -402

 

Area All Ages 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 55 – 59 60 – 64
Scotland 31,693 1,296 1,102 880 689 520
Aberdeen City -969 -106 -76 -142 -172 -97
Fife 1,608 106 53 69 72 83
Glasgow City 7,963 -198 -18 -9 26 -11

 

Area All Ages 65 – 69 70 – 74 75 – 79 80 – 84 85 – 89 90+
Scotland 31,693 220 -51 -22 -74 -23 -33
Aberdeen City -969 -90 -10 1 -6 -9 -6
Fife 1,608 80 13 -16 -3 4 10
Glasgow City 7,963 -49 3 -9 -51 -44 -51

Source: NRS (12 July 2017) Total Migration to or from Scotland

Migration patterns for age groups also intersect with race and/or ethnicity. Census data shows that young people aged 16-24 were also the ethnically diverse age group in Fife with 94% of those aged 16-24 and 93% of adults aged 25-34 describing themselves as ‘White Scottish, British or Other White’.

Just over 3% of the population aged 25-34 recorded their ethnic group as White Polish, and for the 16-24 group, 2.9% identify themselves as Asian. By contrast, older people in Fife were much less ethnically diverse with 99% of those aged 65 and over describing themselves as ‘White Scottish, British or Other White’ whilst only 0.4% were of ‘Asian’ ethnicity and a further 0.2% were ‘White Polish’.

Source: Census 2011 Data Explorer

Population Projections: the next 25 years

Fife’s population is expected to grow by 5.4% over the next 22 years, which is slightly under the Scottish average of 6.6%. Midlothian is expected to grow by 25.7%, while Na h-Eileanan Siar (Outer Hebrides) is expected to have a change in population of -13.7%.

 

 

 

 

Area

Components of projected population change for council areas, 2014 to 2039
Natural change
(per thousand people)
Net migration
(per thousand people)
Population change
(percentage)
Na h-Eileanan Siar -134.2 10.3 -13.7
Fife -12.4 67.1 5.4
Scotland -4.3 70.5 6.6
Midlothian 49.3 209.1 25.7

Source: NRS Population Projections for Scottish Areas (2014-based)

Comparison of Fife’s and Scotland population pyramids show a large increase in the 65+ and a large decrease in the 35-65 demographics over the next 25 years

Source: NRS (2017) Population Projection Pyramids

Living Standards

People of working age in Fife are paid on average £530.5 per week, which is less than Scotland’s average of £547.7 per week. Claimant counts per age bands are similar to the national patterns, with a higher proportion in Fife of 18-24 year-olds claiming benefits (4.4% vs 3.7% at Scotland level).

Pay (in pounds) Fife Scotland
Gross Weekly  
Full-Time Workers 530.5 547.7
Male Full-Time Workers 554.8 580.2
Female Full-Time Workers 496.5 498.3
Hourly – Excluding Overtime  
Full-Time Workers 13.48 13.85
Male Full-Time Workers 13.50 14.32
Female Full-Time Workers 13.38 13.31

Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife Earnings by place of residence (2017)

Fife
(Level)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
Aged 16+ 5,515 2.4 2.2
Aged 16 To 17 15 0.2 0.2
Aged 18 To 24 1,350 4.0 3.3
Aged 18 To 21 865 4.4 3.7
Aged 25 To 49 2,855 2.5 2.3
Aged 50+ 1,260 1.6 1.7

Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife[2]
ONS Claimant count by age – not seasonally adjusted (October 2017) 

Poverty

There are several components to poverty. The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation is most commonly used tool for identifying the most deprived zones in Scotland. The SIMD 2016 data shows local-national trends, with 11% of the working age population employment deprived in Fife (10.8% for Scotland) and 12.4% of the population are income deprived in Fife (12.3% for Scotland)[3].

However as the SIMD is a relative ranking between different areas, it does not necessarily inform on the experience of poverty in one area (for a detailed breakdown see KnowFife’s SIMD page here).  Poverty is increasingly defined as a household income below 60% of the UK median and is measured at the household level[4]. Some areas that we also consider useful are fuel poverty and foodbank usage[5].

With around 40% of all households in Fife in fuel poverty, this is significantly greater than the proportion of all households in Scotland that are fuel poor (34%). The lowest incidence of this is in Edinburgh (24%) while the highest is in Orkney (65%).

Noticeably, Fuel Poverty is higher for Fifers living in flats (47%) or 1 or 2 bedroom homes (46%). Also, it is more likely for those in social housing (47%) or renting privately (43%). It less likely in 3+ bedroom homes or family households.

Fuel Poverty by Dwelling Characteristics
Age of Dwelling House or Flat Number of Bedrooms
Local Authority % of LA Pre-1945 Post 1945 House Flat 1 or 2 3+
City of Edinburgh 24% 31% 18% 26% 23% 23% 25%
Fife 40% 47% 38% 38% 47% 46% 35%
Orkney Islands 65% 73% 59% 65% * 68% 63%
Scotland 34% 40% 31% 36% 31% 33% 34%

 

Fuel Poverty by Household Attributes
Tenure Household Type
Local Authority % of LA Owner-occupied Social Housing Private Rented Older Families Other
City of Edinburgh 24% 22% 30% 23% 46% 8% 22%
Fife 40% 37% 47% 43% 56% 18% 38%
Orkney Islands 65% 65% 65% 67% 85% 34% 67%
Scotland 34% 32% 37% 33% 49% 20% 32%

Source:  Fuel Poverty SHCS Local Authority Tables 2013-2015

 Compared to the national average, Fife households tend to manage better, although this is by a slight margin: 

Male Female All Gender 16-39 40-64 65+ All Age
Fife 2015 % % % % % % %
Manages well 64 54 60 47 61 70 60
Gets by 27 36 31 38 28 28 31
Does not manage well 9 10 10 14 11 2 10
Scotland 2015 % % % % % % %
Manages well 59 50 55 47 53 66 55
Gets by 33 39 36 40 36 31 36
Does not manage well 8 11 10 13 11 3 10

 Source: Scottish Household Survey (2015) LA Tables – Annual Report
Table 6.3: How the household is managing financially this year by sex and age of highest income householder
(No Fife 2016 data available at this time)

Housing

2-persons households are the majority of households in Fife (36.6%) while Scotland’s average is 1-person households at 34.7%, closely followed by 2-person households at 34%. The majority are owner-residents (64.8%), however there is a higher proportion of council housing renters in Fife than in Scotland (18% vs 13.2).

Fife Scotland
Total number of households (with residents) 160,952 2,372,777
% 1 person 31.8 34.7
% 2 people 36.6 34.0
% 3 people 15.3 15.1
% 4 people 11.6 11.5
% 5 people 3.6 3.7
% 6 or more people 1.1 1

 

  Fife Scotland
Total number of households (with residents) 160,952 2,372,777
% Owned 64.8 62.0
% Rented from Council 18.0 13.2
% Other social rented 4.9 11.1
% Private rented 11.2 12.4
% Living rent free 1.1 1.3

Housing distribution in Fife – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

 Age groups are on average distributed across households and communal establishments as would be expected. The 18-19 & 20-24 is the main age groups living in communal establishments (21.4% & 24.5%, i.e. 45.9%), followed by 8.9% of 85-89 year olds.

 Children

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%
0 to 4 20,763 5.8% 12 0.2%
5 to 9 19,149 5.4% 7 0.1%
10 to 11 7,675 2.1% 13 0.2%
12 to 14 12,417 3.5% 81 1.0%
15 4,228 1.2% 52 0.7%

 Young People

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%
16 to 17 8,660 2.4% 192 2.5%
18 to 19 7,874 2.2% 1,658 21.4%
20 to 24 22,240 6.2% 1,901 24.5%
25 to 29 20,338 5.7% 464 6.0%
30 to 34 20,631 5.8% 156 2.0%
35 to 39 22,947 6.4% 88 1.1%
40 to 44 27,356 7.7% 89 1.1%
45 to 49 27,912 7.8% 95 1.2%
50 to 54 26,057 7.3% 95 1.2%
55 to 59 22,890 6.4% 91 1.2%
60 to 64 24,854 7.0% 142 1.8%

 Older People 

Lives in a household Lives in a communal establishment
All people 357,440 100.0% 7,758 100.0%

65 to 69
19,407 5.4% 122 1.6%
70 to 74 15,441 4.3% 211 2.7%
75 to 79 12,078 3.4% 347 4.5%
80 to 84 8,185 2.3% 545 7.0%
85 to 89 4,500 1.3% 688 8.9%
90 to 94 1,493 0.4% 484 6.2%
95 and over 345 0.1% 225 2.9%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland.
Table DC1104SC – Residence type by sex by age
(Fife) 

Carers

The 2011 census reports 34,828 carers in Fife, which at 9.5% of the population is directly comparable to the national average (9.3%), along with other trends that are also similar: the majority of carers are female (59.3%), employed (51.9%) and 19.9% are aged 65 or over, with 5.4% of Fifers aged 65+ care for over 35 hours a week. A higher proportion of males ages 50-64 provide care in Fife compared to Scotland (36.9% vs 34.9%).

  Fife Scotland
% Carers who are female 59.3 59.2
% Carers who are employed (excluding full-time students) 51.9 53.2
% Carers aged under 16 1.9 2.0
% Carers aged 65 and over 19.9 19.3

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Carers

Fife Number of people Age group % Male / Female %
Age Male Female Male Female Male Female
0 to 24 1,030 1,370 7.3% 6.6% 42.9% 57.1%
25 to 49 4,660 7,870 32.8% 38.1% 37.2% 62.8%
50 to 64 5,230 7,750 36.9% 37.5% 40.3% 59.7%
65+ 3,270 3,650 23.0% 17.7% 47.3% 52.7%
All people 14,190 20,640 100.0% 100.0% 40.7% 59.3%

Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based) 

Fife LEVEL OF CARE PROVIDED PER WEEK
Age 0 hours 1-19 hours 20-34 hours 35+ hours Total % of carers
0 to 24 97.8% 1.5% 0.3% 0.5% 100.0% 2.2%
25 to 49 89.6% 5.9% 1.0% 3.5% 100.0% 10.4%
50 to 64 82.5% 10.9% 1.5% 5.1% 100.0% 17.5%
65 and over 89.2% 4.4% 1.0% 5.4% 100.0% 10.8%
All people 90.5% 5.4% 0.9% 3.3% 100.0% 9.5%

 Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based) – (Age groups of people who provide >0 hours of care) 

In 2016, Fife had a slightly higher than the national average of carers that were benefit claimants at 1.9% (vs 1.7%). 

Fife

(Numbers)

Fife

(%)

Scotland

(%)

Total Claimants 31,700 13.6 13.0
Job Seekers 3,920 1.7 1.4
ESA And Incapacity Benefits 17,820 7.7 7.8
Lone Parents 2,470 1.1 0.9
Carers 4,410 1.9 1.7
Others On Income Related Benefits 470 0.2 0.2
Disabled 2,120 0.9 0.9
Bereaved 480 0.2 0.2
Main Out-Of-Work Benefits 24,690 10.6 10.2

 Source: NOMIS Labour Market Profile – Fife
Working-age client group – main benefit claimants (November 2016)

Health and Social care

The census showed that health profiles in Fife are closely related to Scotland’s as a whole. For instance, the average age of a person in Fife is 40.8 years, slightly above Scotland’s (40.3), and the average of Fifers with good or very good health is also slightly above (36.6 vs 36.2). A noticeable difference is that 67.9% people report as living with no condition in Fife, compared to 70.1% across Scotland. As expected, the proportion of people living with a limiting health condition increases with age, from the 50-54 group onwards at 26% (the average across all age groups is 20%).

  Fife Scotland
Average age 40.8 40.3
Average age of a person with good or very good health 36.6 36.2
Average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness 59.3 59.2
Average age of carer 51.3 50.7
Percentage of households with one or more carers resident 16.8 16.0

Health Key facts – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

  Fife Scotland
% Very good health 50.8 52.5
% Good health 31.0 29.7
% Fair health 12.8 12.2
% Bad health 4.2 4.3
% Very bad health 1.2 1.3

General Health – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Fife Scotland
% Limited a lot 9.5 9.6
% Limited a little 10.8 10.1
% Not limited 79.7 80.4

Long-term health problem or disability – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Fife Scotland
% With no condition 67.9 70.1
% With one or more long-term health conditions 32.1 29.9
% With deafness or partial hearing loss 7.3 6.6
% With blindness or partial sight loss 2.5 2.4
% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome) 0.5 0.5
% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia) 2.4 2.0
% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome) 0.7 0.6
% With physical disability 7.2 6.7
% With mental health condition 4.1 4.4
% With other condition 20.3 18.7

Long-term health condition – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Fife All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Limiting long term health problem or disability age group

NHS Fife (September 2016) Fife Population; an analysis by protected characteristics

Looking at trends across the past (2013-2016) Scottish Health Surveys, Fife continues to follow the national average with 72% reporting Very Good/Good health (vs 74% nationally) and 9% reporting Bad/Very bad health (vs 8% nationally)[6].

 Source: Scottish Health Survey 2013-2016 (2017) – Local Area Results

Justice and Personal Security

There was an overall decrease in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17 across Scotland that was reflected in 20 of the 32 local authorities, with 11 experiencing an increase and one with very little change from the previous year. The largest rise in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17 was in Midlothian (12%) where 78% of the increase was accounted for by a rise in Crimes of dishonesty and Other crimes. Fife saw very little change in recorded crime between 2015-16 and 2016-17:

Source: Recorded Crime in Scotland, 2016-17

Risk of crime

Across Scotland, the risk of being a victim of a crime is higher for males (15.6%) than for females (13.6%), and that males also had a higher risk of being as victim of violent crime than females (3.5% compared to 1.8% respectively), both are statistically significant.

For both sexes, the 16-24 age group is at 20.4% the most likely to be victim of all SCJS crime:

  % Percentage of adults
Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime Number of Respondents
All 13.0 2.6 14.5 11,470
Gender
Male 13.4 3.5 15.6 5,180
Female 12.6 1.8 13.6 6,290
Age
16-24 16.8 6.0 20.4 930
25-44 16.5 3.5 18.4 3,420
45-59 13.7 2.2 15.3 2,970
60 or over 6.4 0.4 6.8 4,160

  

Age within gender
Male 16-24 17.9 8.7 23.6 430
Male 25-44 15.4 5.0 18.3 1,530
Male 45-59 13.9 1.9 15.3 1,360
Male 60 or over 7.9 0.4 8.3 1,860
Female 16-24 15.7 3.2 17.1 500
Female 25-44 17.6 2.0 18.6 1,880
Female 45-59 13.6 2.4 15.2 1,610
Female 60 or over 5.2 0.3 5.5 2,300

 

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15

Table 4.1 The varying risk of crime by age and gender 

Characteristics of Offenders

Where victims could provide information about the offender, offenders were more likely to be male (74%) than female (15%). This is consistent across property crime and violent crime. 69% of offenders were thought to be between 16 and 39. Property crime victims were more likely than victims of violent crime to think that offenders were of school age (22% and 9% respectively):

% Percentage of SCJS crimes where respondent was able to say anything about the offender(s)
Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime
Gender
Male 69 77 74
Female 14 16 15
Person/People of both sexes 15 6 10
Age
School age 22 9 15
16-24 33 35 34
25-39 30 39 35
40 or over 15 22 19
Number of respondents 400 270 670

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15

Table 4.5: Characteristics of Offenders

A further breakdown shows that victims of violent crime were more likely than victims of property crime to know the offender well (37% compared to 5%).

Percentage of SCJS crimes Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime
Known well 5 37 14
Just speak to casually 3 10 5
Just by sight 6 19 10
Number of Respondents 1,644 282 1,926

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15

Table 4.6: Characteristics of Offenders

Across Scotland, the profile of prisoners shows clear age characteristics with around 59% of prisoners were under the age of 35[7]. Just over one fifth of prisoners were under the age of 25. This is decreasing, considering a long time period (2005 to 2013), the proportion of 16-24 year olds in prison reduced by 8% while the proportion aged 25-34 increased by 3% to just over 3,000 prisoners.

The proportion of 35-44 year olds in 2013 was the same as in 2005. The proportion of those aged 45-54 increased by 4%. The proportion of those in categories 55-64 or 65+ increased by a small amount compared to 2005.

Discrimination and Harassment

In 2016 in Fife, the 40-49 age group reported a noticeable lower experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average (2% vs 7%):

Discrimination
%
Harassment
%
Yes No Yes No
Fife 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 6 94
40-59 2 98 2 98
60+ 3 97 3 97
All 5 95 4 96
Scotland 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 9 91
40-59 7 93 6 94
60+ 3 97 3 97
All 7 93 6 94

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report
Table 4.13: Experience of discrimination and harassment

Participation

Social and community cohesion

In Fife in 2016, the Scottish Household Survey reports strength of belonging to community to be lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole.

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2016
Age
16-39 30 41 17 12
40-59 29 42 23 5 1
60+ 45 38 15 2 1
All 34 40 18 6 1
Scotland 2016
Age
16-39 25 44 22 8 2
40-59 35 43 16 5 0
60+ 46 40 10 3 0
All 35 42 16 5 1

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Table 4.17: Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 

Local services

From the 2016 Scottish Household Survey, Fifers tend to rate positively local area services compared to Scotland on average, with lower scores only on people ‘wanting more involvement in decisions’ (32% vs 34%).

This is prevalent in the 16-39 age group with a noticeable lower percentage (32% vs 39%) wishing more involvement in decisions processes. The 65+ age group rates communication positively (61%), along with ‘high quality services’, doing best with money available and addressing key issues at 60%.

16-39 40-64 65+ All
Fife 2016
Good at communicating services 44 56 61 53
High quality services 48 53 60 53
Good at communicating performance 35 44 53 43
Services designed for needs 46 46 57 49
Does its best with money available 40 50 60 49
Addressing key issues 44 47 60 49
Good at listening 32 42 44 39
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 25 28 27 27
I want greater involvement in decisions 32 39 23 32

 

Scotland 2016
Good at communicating services 40 47 50 45
High quality services 43 43 49 45
Good at communicating performance 31 39 46 37
Services designed for needs 41 38 44 40
Does its best with money available 35 43 49 41
Addressing key issues 34 35 41 36
Good at listening 24 25 28 25
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 24 24 20 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 39 36 21 34

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Figure 9.3: Percentage agreeing with various statements about local council services

Children and Young People

Demography

Children (0-15) make up 17.4% of Fifers, which is higher than Scotland’s at 16.9%, and male children and young people are slightly more prevalent with 1,495 more males than females in the 0-24 age groups.

Fife Scotland
Estimated population (2016) 370,330 5,404,700
% Aged 0-15 (Children) 17.4 16.9
% Aged 16-64 (Working Age) 62.7 64.6
% Aged 65+ (Pensionable Age) 19.9 18.5

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

0 – 4   5 – 9   10 – 14
Scotland 287,238 5% 298,862 6% 274,378 5%
Fife 19,806 5% 21,308 6% 19,349 5%
Males 10,157 6% 10,906 6% 9,948 6%
Females 9,649 5% 10,402 5% 9,401 5%

 

15 – 19 20 – 24
Scotland 298,660 6% 363,967 7%
Fife 21,090 6% 24,388 7%
Males 10,687 6% 12,020 7%
Females 10,403 5% 12,368 6%

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

Education

88.7% of 16-19 year olds in Fife are participating in education, training or employment[8] compared to 91.1% nationally[9].  The participation rate of +0.4%, compared to +0.7% across Scotland. 4.8% are not participating i.e. those unemployed seeking employment and others unemployed and not seeking e.g. economically inactive compared to 3.7% nationally, a 0.2% fall compared to 2016. 6.5% have an unconfirmed status compared to 5.3% nationally, also a 0.2% fall compared to 2016.

Source: SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure

Over the past 10 years Fife S4 pupils have had a consistently lower tariff score than Scotland on average. The tariff score can be seen as an indicator for educational outcomes and it is also a key indicator in the Community Planning Outcomes tool[10].

 S4 Tariff Score [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile[11]
2.0a: (S4 Tariff Score)

Positive Destinations[12]

Fife school leavers have on average a slightly lower percentage of positive and sustained destinations than Scotland on average, although this is very close (92.9% vs 92.1%).

Positive Destinations [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a: (S4 Tariff Score)

Employment

There are similar trends across large age groups (16+, 25-49 and 50+) between Fife and Scotland, with more variation for Young People. The 18-24 age group in Fife has a high proportion of claimants (4.0%) compared to Scotland on average (3.3%), with the 18-21 group being particularly high at 4.4%.

Fife
(Level)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
Aged 16+ 5,515 2.4 2.2
Aged 16 To 17 15 0.2 0.2
Aged 18 To 24 1,350 4.0 3.3
Aged 18 To 21 865 4.4 3.7
Aged 25 To 49 2,855 2.5 2.3
Aged 50+ 1,260 1.6 1.7

Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife[13]
ONS Claimant count by age – not seasonally adjusted (October 2017)

Living Standards

Child Poverty (16 and under / under 20)

Over the past 10 years Fife has had a consistently higher proportion of Child Poverty than Scotland, although this is difficult to gauge due to a change in child poverty indicators in the past years. 

Child Poverty[14] [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a: Child Poverty Fife and Scotland
[15]

Geography Children in Child Benefit families % of Children in low-income families
Under 16 All Children Under 16 All Children
Scotland 880,230 1,010,155 18.6% 18.4%
Fife 63,050 72,190 19.8% 19.4%
Glasgow City 95,780 109,470 30.7% 30.8%
Shetland Islands 4,030 4,590 7.2% 6.9%

Source: Personal tax credits: Children in low-income families local measure – snapshot as at 31 August 2014: (30 September 2016 report)

The more recent ‘% of Children in low-income families’ indicator, places Fife with 19.8% slightly above Scotland’s average (18.6%). The highest incidence is in Glasgow City, with 30.7%, while the lowest is in Shetland Islands with only 7.2%.

In 2014-15, before housing costs are accounted for, 17% of children, 15% of working age adults and 15% of pensioners in Scotland were living in relative poverty. After housing costs, 22% of children, 19% of working age adults and 12% of pensioners in Scotland were living in relative poverty (Scottish Government (2016) Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2014/15).

Geography Children in IS

/ JSA families

Children in families receiving WTC and CTC, and income <60% median income
Under 16 All Children Under 16 All Children
Scotland 121,595 135,560 14,645 18,320
Fife 9,175 10,165 1,140 1,420
Glasgow City 22,645 25,725 2,505 3,155
Shetland Islands 210 225 20 25

 

Geography Children in families receiving CTC only, and income <60% median income Children in families in receipt of CTC (<60% median income) or IS/JSA
Under 16 All Children Under 16 All Children
Scotland 27,795 31,510 164,035 185,390
Fife 2,155 2,450 12,470 14,035
Glasgow City 4,240 4,810 29,390 33,695
Shetland Islands 60 65 290 315

Source: Personal tax credits: Children in low-income families local measure – snapshot as at 31 August 2014: (30 September 2016 report)

The End Child Poverty coalition of civil organisations and the Centre for Research in Social Policy publish a Child Poverty map of the UK (see here). For the period of October to December 2015, child poverty in Fife was reported at 25% after housing costs[16], which is equal to the national average.

Housing and Social Care

The rate for children who were looked after by the local authority, at 11/1000, was slightly lower but still comparable to Scotland’s rate of 14/1000[17]. The number of children in temporary accommodation increased slightly in Fife between 31 March 2016 and 2017 by 30, counting now at 353 in total with 337 in social housing and 16 is hostels[18]

Health

Healthy Birthweight[19]

Over the past 10 years Fife has had a consistently lower Healthy birthrate than Scotland, although this gap is closing slowly. For further information on the Quality Measurement Framework, see the Information Service Division Scotland’s website here.

Healthy Birthrate [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a: Child Poverty Fife and Scotland

Body Mass Index (Primary 1)[20]

Over the past 5 years children in Fife has had a higher Primary 1 Body Mass Index than Scotland and this is likely to continue.

Primary 1 Body Mass Index [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a Body Mass Index (Primary 1)

Dental Health

In 2013/14, 68% of children in primary 1 had good dental health, higher than Scotland at 67%. The dental health of children in primary 7, at 54% with no obvious decay experience, was higher than the Scottish average of 48%[21]. 

Justice and Personal Security

159 children were the child protection register in Fife in 2016, this rate was lower than Scotland’s (2.5 vs 3) and over the past 10 years this has been decreasing: 

2007 2008 2009
Local authority Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate
East Renfrewshire 18 1.0 31 1.7 29 1.6
Fife 202 3.1 150 2.3 191 3.0
Glasgow City 353 3.6 304 3.1 299 3.1
Scotland 2,593 2.8 2,433 2.6 2,682 2.9

 

2010 2011 2012
Local authority Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate
East Renfrewshire 31 1.7 24 1.3 36 2.0
Fife 220 3.4 187 2.9 205 3.2
Glasgow City 286 3.0 351 3.6 436 4.6
Scotland 2,518 2.7 2,571 2.8 2,698 2.9

  

2013 2014 2015
Local authority Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate Number on Register Rate
East Renfrewshire 26 1.5 36 2.0 33 1.8
Fife 213 3.3 230 3.6 182 2.8
Glasgow City 431 4.5 482 5.0 504 5.2
Scotland 2,645 2.9 2,877 3.2 2,741 3.0

 

2016
Local authority Number on Register Rate
East Renfrewshire 12 0.7
Fife 159 2.5
Glasgow City 512 5.2
Scotland 2,723 3.0

 Source: Children’s Social Work Statistics Scotland 2015/16
Table 2.2: Number of children on the child protection register[22]

Political and civic participation and representation

Across Scotland, in 2016, just over a quarter (27%) of applications received for public appointments were from people aged under 50. Nearly a third (31%) of those appointed belonged to the under 50 age group (Public Appointments in Scotland 2016 Diversity Analysis Report – March 2017), there is no further breakdown at local level at this moment.

Adults

Demographics

Adults of working make up 62.7% of Fife’s population which is lower than the national average (64.6%). Also, a lower proportion of this group is economically active (67.6% vs 69% for Scotland) and a higher proportion is retired (16.5% vs 14.9%).

Fife Scotland
Estimated population (2016) 370,330 5,404,700
% Males 48.5 48.6
% Females 51.5 51.4
   
% Aged 0-15 (Children) 17.4 16.9
% Aged 16-64 (Working Age) 62.7 64.6
% Aged 65+ (Pensionable Age) 19.9 18.5

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

  Fife Scotland
All persons 16 to 74 271911 3970530
% Economically active 67.6 69.0
% Employees – part-time 13.6 13.3
% Employees – full-time 39.1 39.6
% Self-employed 6.6 7.5
% Unemployed 5.2 4.8
% Full-time student – employed 2.3 2.9
% Full-time student – unemployed 0.8 0.8
% Economically inactive 32.4 31.0
% Retired 16.5 14.9
% Student 6.0 5.5
% Looking after home or family 3.5 3.6
% Long-term sick or disabled 4.7 5.1
% Other 1.7 1.9

Economic activity – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Adults aged between 50 and 64 are the main providers of unpaid care in Fife (16.9%), with most giving 1-19 hours: 

LEVEL OF CARE PROVIDED PER WEEK
Age 0 hours 1-19 hours 20-34 hours 35+ hours Total % of age group who provide care (>0 hours)
0 to 24 97.6% 1.6% 0.3% 0.5% 100.0% 2.4%
25 to 49 89.9% 5.8% 0.9% 3.4% 100.0% 10.1%
50 to 64 83.1% 10.3% 1.6% 5.1% 100.0% 16.9%
65 and over 89.3% 4.1% 0.9% 5.7% 100.0% 10.7%
All people 90.7% 5.2% 0.9% 3.3% 100.0% 9.3%

 Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011)

Employment

Employment rates of the working age group in Fife in 2016 was at 72.4%; following closely the average in Scotland’s at 72.9% and its distribution. The lowest rate is in the 16-24 age group at 52.1%, which is also lower than the national average 55.7%.

  All aged 16 & over 16-64 16-24
2016 Proportion Level Proportion Level Proportion Level
Scotland 58.7% 2,579,700 72.9% 2,490,400 55.7% 331,800
Fife 58.1% 173,800 72.4% 166,700 52.1% 21,000
2015
Scotland 58.8% 2,577,300 73.1% 2,496,900 56.4% 343,200
Fife 57.6% 172,000 73.2% 166,600 57.6% 23,800
2014
Scotland 58.6% 2,557,700 72.6% 2,477,000 53.3% 327,100
Fife 58.4% 174,000 74.0% 169,200 57.3% 24,000

 

  25-34 35-49 50 – 64
2016 Proportion Level Proportion Level Proportion Level
Scotland 80.8% 569,400 81.9% 846,800 68.8% 742,400
Fife 79.9% 33,600 87.2% 62,900 65.0% 49,200
2015
Scotland 80.5% 560,900 82.3% 861,200 68.6% 731,500
Fife 83.0% 34,500 83.1% 60,100 66.6% 48,200
2014
Scotland 80.9% 556,900 83.4% 885,200 67.4% 707,700
Fife 85.0% 35,100 86.8% 60,800 65.4% 49,400

Source: SG (23 May 2017) Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland:
Table 1.4: Employment rates and levels by age and local authority, Scotland, 2004-2016

The proportion of Fife’s 65+ population in employment in 2016 is at its highest (10.3%) of the past 10 years. The highest proportion in Scotland is 14.1% (Highlands) and the lowest is 6.2% (West Dunbartonshire).

  65+
2016 Proportion Level
Scotland 9.1% 89,300
Fife 10.3% 7,100
2015
Scotland 8.3% 80,400
Fife 7.7% 5,500
2014
Scotland 8.5% 80,700
Fife 6.8% 4,700

Source: Scottish Government (23 May 2017) Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016
Table 1.4: Employment rates and levels by age and local authority, Scotland, 2004-2016

The Labour Market Profile for Fife follows closely the patterns seen across Scotland, with only a slightly higher number in total claimant counts (13.6% vs 13%).

Fife
(Numbers)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
Total Claimants 31,700 13.6 13.0
Job Seekers 3,920 1.7 1.4
ESA And Incapacity Benefits 17,820 7.7 7.8
Lone Parents 2,470 1.1 0.9
Carers 4,410 1.9 1.7
Others On Income Related Benefits 470 0.2 0.2
Disabled 2,120 0.9 0.9
Bereaved 480 0.2 0.2
Main Out-Of-Work Benefits 24,690 10.6 10.2

Source: DWP benefit claimants – working age client group (November 2016)
Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife

Health and Social Care

Similar trends in health exist across Fife and Scotland with a significant variation in drug-related hospital stay: in 2012/13–2014/15, the rate was 181/100,000 in Fife, which was 48% higher than the Scottish level of 122/100,000[23].

Unplanned Hospital Attendances[24]

Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Emergency Admission rate than the rest of Scotland and this gap is projected to remain constant. This is consistent lower over Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary heart disease admissions. For adults aged 65 years and over with multiple hospital admissions in 2011–2013, at 4500, was lower than that in Scotland (5160).

Unplanned Hospital Attendances [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a:
Emergency Admissions

Well-being (Mental Health)[25]

Fife scores slightly lower on mental health Well-Being than Scotland as a whole. The percentage of people prescribed medication for anxiety, depression or psychosis in 2014/15 was, at 18%, higher than Scotland overall (17%). The rate for psychiatric hospitalisations in 2011–2013 was 273, which was lower than the Scottish rate of 292. The suicide rate in 2009–2013 was 15, which was similar to the Scottish rate of 15.

Well-Being [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a
: Well-Being

Justice and Personal Security

Recorded crime and offences in Fife tends to be lower than the Scottish average, with the exception of Sexual Crimes, with a rate of 120 on the index of national rate per 10,000 population. Glasgow City report the highest (adjusted[26]) total crime and offence rate at 161, Fife is at 87 and the lowest is Na h-Eileanan Siar (Outer Hebrides) at 54.

Local authority area Total crimes and offences
Fife 87
Glasgow City 161
Na h-Eileanan Siar 54
Scotland 100

 

Local authority area Non-sexual
crimes of violence
Sexual crimes Crimes of dishonesty Fire-raising,
vandalism, etc.
Other crimes Total crimes
Fife 89 120 78 93 71 82
Glasgow City 189 137 165 137 180 162
Na h-Eileanan Siar 39 72 24 33 38 32
Scotland 100 100 100 100 100 100

 

Local authority area Misc. offences Motor vehicle offences Total offences
Fife 90 93 92
Glasgow City 194 124 161
Na h-Eileanan Siar 41 106 72
Scotland 100 100 100

Source: Scottish Government (2017) Recorded Crime in Scotland 2016-17
Table 14: Rates in Number of crimes and offences recorded by the police, 2016-17

In terms of experiences of discrimination and harassment, again Fife follows the average Scottish average profile. In 2016 in Fife, the 40-49 age group reported experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average.

Discrimination % Harassment % Base
Yes No Yes No
Fife 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 6 94 120
40-59 2 98 2 98 170
60+ 3 97 3 97 190
All 5 95 4 96 480
Scotland 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 9 91 2,720
40-59 7 93 6 94 3,130
60+ 3 97 3 97 3,780
All 7 93 6 94 9,640

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report
Table 4.13: Experience of discrimination and harassment

16-39 40-64 65+ All
Fife 2016
Good at communicating services 44 56 61 53
High quality services 48 53 60 53
Good at communicating performance 35 44 53 43
Services designed for needs 46 46 57 49
Does its best with money available 40 50 60 49
Addressing key issues 44 47 60 49
Good at listening 32 42 44 39
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 25 28 27 27
I want greater involvement in decisions 32 39 23 32
Scotland 2016
Good at communicating services 40 47 50 45
High quality services 43 43 49 45
Good at communicating performance 31 39 46 37
Services designed for needs 41 38 44 40
Does its best with money available 35 43 49 41
Addressing key issues 34 35 41 36
Good at listening 24 25 28 25
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 24 24 20 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 39 36 21 34

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Figure 9.3: % agreeing with various statements about local council services by age 

Political and civic participation and representation / Access to services

From the 2016 Scottish Household Survey, Fifers tend to rate positively local area services compared to Scotland on average, with lower scores only on people ‘wanting more involvement in decisions’ (32% vs 34%).

This is prevalent in the 16-39 age group with a noticeable lower percentage (32% vs 39%) wishing more involvement in decisions processes. The 65+ age group rates communication positively (61%), along with ‘high quality services’, doing best with money available and addressing key issues at 60%.

16-39 40-64 65+ All
Fife 2016
Good at communicating services 44 56 61 53
High quality services 48 53 60 53
Good at communicating performance 35 44 53 43
Services designed for needs 46 46 57 49
Does its best with money available 40 50 60 49
Addressing key issues 44 47 60 49
Good at listening 32 42 44 39
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 25 28 27 27
I want greater involvement in decisions 32 39 23 32
Scotland 2016
Good at communicating services 40 47 50 45
High quality services 43 43 49 45
Good at communicating performance 31 39 46 37
Services designed for needs 41 38 44 40
Does its best with money available 35 43 49 41
Addressing key issues 34 35 41 36
Good at listening 24 25 28 25
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 24 24 20 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 39 36 21 34

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Figure 9.3: % agreeing with various statements about local council services by age

Social and community cohesion

Strength of belonging to community is lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole:

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2016
Age
16-39 30 41 17 12
40-59 29 42 23 5 1
60+ 45 38 15 2 1
All 34 40 18 6 1
Scotland 2016
Age
16-39 25 44 22 8 2
40-59 35 43 16 5 0
60+ 46 40 10 3 0
All 35 42 16 5 1

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Table 4.17: Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Older People

Demography

From the National Records of Scotland 2016 Population Estimates, 19.9% of Fifers are of Pensionable Age, which is slightly above Scotland’s average of 18.5%.

Fife Scotland
Estimated population (2016) 370,330 5,404,700
% Aged 0-15 (Children) 17.4 16.9
% Aged 16-64 (Working Age) 62.7 64.6
% Aged 65+ (Pensionable Age) 19.9 18.5

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

From a more detailed breakdown of the 65+ population that the 70-74 and 75-79 bands are 1% above the national average:

Pensionable Age (includes Older People (65+) and Very Old People (90+))

65 – 69 70 – 74   75 – 79  
Scotland 317,524 6% 239,019 4% 186,846 3%
Fife 23,935 6% 18,180 5% 13,430 4%
Males 11,517 6% 8,633 5% 6,060 3%
Females 12,418 7% 9,547 5% 7,370 4%

 


80 – 84   85 – 89   90+
Scotland 136,418 3% 77,978 1% 41,067 1%
Fife 9,600 3% 5,503 1% 3,010 1%
Males 4,105 2% 2,030 1% 886 0%
Females 5,495 3% 3,473 2% 2,124 1%

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

Another noticeable trend for this age group is migration to Fife of older persons (85-59 and 90+):

Area 65 – 69 70 – 74 75 – 79 80 – 84 85 – 89 90+
Scotland 220 -51 -22 -74 -23 -33
Aberdeen City -90 -10 1 -6 -9 -6
Fife 80 13 -16 -3 4 10
Glasgow City -49 3 -9 -51 -44 -51

Source: NRS (12 July 2017) Total Migration to or from Scotland

Living Standards

Poverty

In 2015, 11.9% of Fife Households claimed Pension Credits, which is lower than the national average of 15.4%[27]. Fife households in the 65+ age range also tended to manage slightly better financially. 

Male

%

Female

%

65+

%

All Age

%

Fife 2015
Manages well 64 54 70 60
Gets by 27 36 28 31
Does not manage well 9 10 2 10
All 100 100 100 100
Scotland 2015
Manages well 59 50 66 55
Gets by 33 39 31 36
Does not manage well 8 11 3 10
All 100 100 100 100

 Source: Scottish Household Survey (2015) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 6.3:
How the household is managing financially by sex and age of highest income householder

Carers and Old Age

Fife has a high proportion of people aged 65 and over with high levels of care needs who are cared for at home. In 2016, this numbered to 680, which represents 34.8% of this group, compared to 22.7% nationwide (see Fife ScotPHO Mental Health Profile). Where comparing with 2013/14, the percentage of people aged 65+ with high levels of care needs who are cared for at home was 23%, which was 33% lower than the Scottish level of 35%.

Health and Social care

67.9% of people report as living with no condition in Fife, compared to 70.1% across Scotland. As expected, with age the incidence of disability or limiting health conditions increases beyond the average (20%) from the 50-64 age group onwards at 26% of the population to 41% in the 65-74, 62% in the 75-84 and 83% over 85. Self-reported health conditions were at 32% for Fife residents compared to 30% nationally. This also increases with age, with 59% of those aged 65-74 and 88% of those aged over 85. 

Fife Scotland
% With no condition 67.9 70.1
% With one or more long-term health conditions 32.1 29.9
% With deafness or partial hearing loss 7.3 6.6
% With blindness or partial sight loss 2.5 2.4
% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome) 0.5 0.5
% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia) 2.4 2.0
% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome) 0.7 0.6
% With physical disability 7.2 6.7
% With mental health condition 4.1 4.4
% With other condition 20.3 18.7

Long-term health condition – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

  Fife Scotland
Average age 40.8 40.3
Average age of a person with good or very good health 36.6 36.2
Average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness 59.3 59.2
Average age of carer 51.3 50.7
Percentage of households with one or more carers resident 16.8 16.0

Health Key facts – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

  Fife Scotland
% Very good health 50.8 52.5
% Good health 31.0 29.7
% Fair health 12.8 12.2
% Bad health 4.2 4.3
% Very bad health 1.2 1.3

General Health – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Fife Scotland
% Limited a lot 9.5 9.6
% Limited a little 10.8 10.1
% Not limited 79.7 80.4

Long-term health problem or disability – Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group; Fife

  Population No Conditions One or more conditions
  No % No %
All people 365,198 247,857 68% 117,341 32%
0 to 15 64,397 57,394 89% 7,003 11%
16 to 24 42,525 35,471 83% 7,054 17%
25 to 34 41,589 33,733 81% 7,856 19%
35 to 49 78,487 58,108 74% 20,379 26%
50 to 64 74,129 42,157 57% 31,972 43%
65 to 74 35,181 14,436 41% 20,745 59%
75 to 84 21,155 5,598 26% 15,557 74%
85 and over 7,735 960 12% 6,775 88%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Self reported presence of health conditions by age group; Fife

Healthy Life Expectancy

Life expectancy (LE[28]) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE[29]) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. HLE is a key summary measure of a population’s health. In Fife, LE and HLE in Fife loosely follows Scotland’s averages, with 76.9 and 63.3 years for males and 81.0 and 65.4 for females respectively.

Males
  • Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest male LE at birth (80.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest male LE at birth (72.6 years).
  • HLE at birth broadly followed the same pattern, with East Dunbartonshire having the highest male HLE (68.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest (55.9 years).
  • This means that a boy born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 7.4 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 80.3 79.8 80.8 68.3 68.1 68.5 12.0
Fife 76.9 76.6 77.2 63.3 63.2 63.4 13.6
Glasgow City 72.6 72.4 72.9 55.9 55.8 56.0 16.7
Scotland 76.6 76.5 76.7 63.1 63.1 63.2 13.5

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle

Females
  • Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest female LE at birth (83.4 years), and Glasgow City the lowest female LE at birth (78.4 years).
  • This means that a girl born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 6.9 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
  LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected ‘not healthy’ years
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 83.4 82.9 83.8 69.5 69.2 69.7 13.9
Fife 81.0 80.8 81.3 65.4 65.3 65.5 15.7
Glasgow City 78.4 78.2 78.7 58.5 58.4 58.6 20.0
Scotland 80.8 80.8 80.9 65.3 65.2 65.3 15.6

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle 

Emergency Admissions (65+)[30]

Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Emergency Admission rate than the rest of Scotland, although this gap is diminishing

Unplanned Hospital Attendances [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile 2.0a: Emergency Admissions

Early Mortality (under 75)[31]

Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Early Mortality Rate than the rest of Scotland:

 Early Mortality [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a: Early Mortality[32]

Fragility[33]

Fife has a higher fragility index than the rest of Scotland, and this has been increasing over the past 10 years:

Fragility [ : Fife  : Scotland]

Source: Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile
2.0a:
Fragility

Justice and Personal Security

Hate crime, homicides and sexual/ domestic abuse

In terms of experiences of discrimination and harassment, again Fife follows the average Scottish average profile. In 2016 in Fife, the 40-49 age group reported a lower experience of discrimination and harassment than Scotland on average (2% vs 7%).

Discrimination Harassment Base
Yes No Yes No
Fife 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 6 94 120
40-59 2 98 2 98 170
60+ 3 97 3 97 190
All 5 95 4 96 480
Scotland 2016
Age
16-39 9 91 9 91 2,720
40-59 7 93 6 94 3,130
60+ 3 97 3 97 3,780
All 7 93 6 94 9,640

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.13: Experience of discrimination and harassment

Participation

The 65+ age group rates communication positively (61%), along with ‘high quality services’, doing best with money available and addressing key issues at 60%.

65+ All
Fife 2016
Good at communicating services 61 53
High quality services 60 53
Good at communicating performance 53 43
Services designed for needs 57 49
Does its best with money available 60 49
Addressing key issues 60 49
Good at listening 44 39
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 27 27
I want greater involvement in decisions 23 32
Scotland 2016
Good at communicating services 50 45
High quality services 49 45
Good at communicating performance 46 37
Services designed for needs 44 40
Does its best with money available 49 41
Addressing key issues 41 36
Good at listening 28 25
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 20 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 21 34

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Figure 9.3: % agreeing with various statements about local council services by age

Social and community cohesion*

Strength of belonging to community is lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole:

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2016
16-39 30 41 17 12
40-59 29 42 23 5 1
60+ 45 38 15 2 1
All 34 40 18 6 1
Scotland 2016
16-39 25 44 22 8 2
40-59 35 43 16 5 0
60+ 46 40 10 3 0
All 35 42 16 5 1

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) LA Tables – Annual Report

Table 4.17: Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

[1] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p6

[2] % is number of claimants as a proportion of resident population of the same age

[3] KnowFife SIMD2016 Quick Brief

[4] Scottish Government (9 June 2017) Poverty equality analysis.

[5] No statistics available in this report for uptake and trends in Fife and Scotland at this time.

[6] Scottish Health Survey 2013-2016 (2017) Local Area Results

[7] UK Prison Population Statistics – Parliament UK Number SN/SG/04334, 20 April 2017

[8] SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure Report Summary for Fife Council

[9] SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure for 16 – 19 year olds in Scotland 2017

[10] Relates to pupils attending publicly funded secondary schools; it does not include: pupils attending publicly funded Special Schools; attending private Independent Schools; or home schooling.

[11] Further data: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/School-Education/PubAttainment

[12] A positive and sustained destinations is defined as: higher education, further education, employment, training or voluntary work. The data are based on destinations derived from follow-up survey 9 months after the end of the school year.

[13] % is number of claimants as a proportion of resident population of the same age

[14] This indicates number of children living in families in receipt of Child Tax Credit (CTC) whose reported income is less than 60 per cent of the median UK income (before housing costs) or in receipt of Income Support (IS) or (Income-Based) Job Seekers Allowance (JSA), divided by the total number of children in the area (determined by Child Benefit data). This is a proxy indicator for child poverty and an attempt to recreate the relative child poverty measure set out in the Child Poverty Act 2010 at a local level

[15] Further data: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/personal-tax-credits-children-in-low-income-families-local-measure-2013-snapshot-as-at-31-august-2013

[16] End Child Poverty 2016 – POVERTY IN YOUR AREA 2016 Table 2, Fife

[17] ScotPHO (August 2016) Fife Health and Wellbeing Profiles – key indicators and overview

[18] Homelessness in Scotland 2016-2017: Table 22 Number of children in temporary accommodation

[19] Healthy Birthweight is an important indicator of foetal and neonatal health at both individual and population levels. There is a significant evidence of the correlation between maternal health and social circumstances and birth weights which are outwith the normal birth weight range.

[20] Primary 1 Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most widely used methods for assessing body composition in children aged two years or older and adults. BMI is calculated by dividing an individual’s weight (in kilograms) by their height squared (in metres squared) and gives an indication of whether weight is in proportion to height.

[21] ScotPHO (August 2016) Fife Health and Wellbeing Profiles – key indicators and overview.

[22] Rate is per 1,000 population aged 0-15

[23] ScotPHO (August 2016) Fife Health and Wellbeing Profiles – key indicators and overview.

[24] A&E attendances should decrease with better provision and use of primary care and community based services, better preventative and continuous care in the home, and improved self-care. The measure is intended to indicate an outcome of a range of improvements relating to joined up working and shifting the balance of care towards prevention.

[25] The data in the Improvement Service (2017) Community Planning Outcomes Profile 2.0a relates to the It 2012/2013 average score on the short version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, and applies here to persons over 16 years of age. More recent data

[26] Adjusted national rates here mean that a score of 87 means there is 13% less recorded crime per 10,000 people of the population than the national average (100)

[27] Scottish Government (2017) Fife Council Area statistics. http://statistics.gov.scot/doc/statistical-geography/S12000015

[28] Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points

[29] As above

[30] This relates to emergency hospital admissions per 100,000 population in ages 65 plus, where an emergency admission is defined as being a new continuous spell of care in hospital where the patient was admitted as an emergency, i.e. Continuous Inpatient Stay (CIS) in hospital.

[31] This relates to European Age Standardised Rate of deaths which is the mortality rate of persons under 75 that would have been found if the population of that area had the same age-composition (proportion of total population in each five year age class) as a hypothetical European population.

[32] Further data: http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/vital-events/deaths/age-standardised-death-rates-calculated-using-the-esp

[33] The fragility index combines 3 measures – De-population, Old Age Dependency Ratio (OADR) and Rural depopulation: this considers the proportion of the total population (or might consider the working age population) that are living in rural or rural remote areas. This is an inverse index so that if the rural population proportion is falling, the index increases.