Demography

From the National Records of Scotland 2017 Population Estimates, 21% of Fifers are of Pensionable Age, which is slightly above Scotland’s average of 19%. There are more females of pension age (23% or 43183) than males (19% or 33735). This is consistent with females having a higher life expectancy:

Fife’s age groups: Count Percentage
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Pension age 76918 33735 43183 21% 19% 23%
All aged 65 & over 74592 33735 40857 20% 19% 21%
All aged 75 & over 32089 13459 18630 9% 7% 10%
All aged 85 & over 8587 3027 5560 2% 2% 3%
All  

371,410

 

180,312

 

191,098

48.5%  

51.5%

Age groups and sex structure of Fife in 2017

Source: NRS Estimated population mid-2017

A further breakdown in 5-year bands is given below for Older People and Very Old People (90+). There are over twice the number of females aged 90+ than males, with an estimated 2122 living in Fife in 2017.

Area 65 – 69 70 – 74 75 – 79 80 – 84 85 – 89 90+
Scotland 305,066 259,530 188,262 137,893 80,091 41,725
Fife 22,609 19,894 13,652 9,850 5,518 3,069
Males Scotland 147,373 122,353 83,611 57,034 29,462 12,388
Males Fife 10,787 9,489 6,255 4,177 2,080 947
Females Scotland 157,693 137,177 104,651 80,859 50,629 29,337
Females Fife 11,822 10,405 7,397 5,673 3,438 2,122

 Table 77 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 65-90+. Mid-2017 estimates

Source: Source: NRS Estimated population mid-2017 

Living Standards

Poverty and old age

In 2017, 69% of households in Fife for which the age highest income householder was 65+ managed well financially. This is slightly higher than nationally (67%) and the 16-39 bracket was more likely to ‘get by’ (46%) or not manage well (10%). Consistently, 3% of the 65+ age group reported as not managing well in Fife and nationally. There are clear gender patterns in this distribution with 60% of males managing well vs 46% of females. This compares to 2016 when all Fife households tend to manage well (65% vs 56%), with the 65+ age group being the most better off (78%, compared to 65% nationally):

  Male Female All Gender 16-39 40-64 65+ All Age
Fife 2017              
Manages well 60 46 54 44 50 69 54
Gets by 33 45 38 46 39 28 38
Does not manage well 8 8 8 10 10 3 8
Scotland 2017              
Manages well 60 51 56 49 53 67 56
Gets by 33 39 35 40 36 30 35
Does not manage well 7 10 9 11 11 3 9

Table 78 How the household is managing financially by sex and age of highest income householder

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables (12 December 2018) Table 6.2

Carers and Old Age

Fife has a high proportion of people aged 65 and over with high levels of care needs who are cared for at home. In 2017, this numbered to 900, which represents 27.7% of this group within Fife, compared to 35.2% nationwide (see Fife ScotPHO Indicator 24).

Health and Social Care[1]

Social Care

Home care clients in Fife receive on average more hours of care, at 17.1 compared to 11.7 in Scotland. The proportion of people aged 65+ receiving care is lower at 12.3 per 1000 in Fife compared 16.9 nationally.

2015 2016 2017
Number of clients 3,620 3,720 3,660
Total hours* 54,160 55,550 62,610
Hours per client 15.0 14.9 17.1
       
Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours 580 670 890
Populations aged 65+ 72,400 72,400 72,400
Rate per 1,000 population 8.0 9.3 12.3

Table 79 Number of home care clients and hours provided/purchased, Fife

2015 2016 2017
Number of clients 61,500 59,780 59,640
Total hours* 700,300 676,520 696,620
Hours per client 11.4 11.3 11.7
       
Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours 17,570 16,630 16,910
Populations aged 65+ 983,000 998,900 998,900
Rate per 1,000 population 17.9 16.6 16.9

Table 80 Number of home care clients and hours provided/purchased, Scotland

Source: Social Care Survey 2017 (19 Dec 2017)

Census data showed that 67.9% of people report as living with no condition in Fife, compared to 70.1% across Scotland. As expected, with age the incidence of disability or limiting health conditions increases beyond the average (20%) from the 50-64 age group onwards at 26% of the population to 41% in the 65-74, 62% in the 75-84 and 83% over 85.

Self-reported health conditions were at 32% for Fife residents compared to 30% nationally. This also increases with age, with 59% of those aged 65-74 and 88% of those aged over 85. 

  Fife Scotland
% With no condition 67.9 70.1
% With one or more long-term health conditions 32.1 29.9
% With deafness or partial hearing loss 7.3 6.6
% With blindness or partial sight loss 2.5 2.4
% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome) 0.5 0.5
% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia) 2.4 2.0
% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome) 0.7 0.6
% With physical disability 7.2 6.7
% With mental health condition 4.1 4.4
% With other condition 20.3 18.7

Table 81 Long-term health conditions, Fife and Scotland 2011

  Fife Scotland
Average age 40.8 40.3
Average age of a person with good or very good health 36.6 36.2
Average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness 59.3 59.2
Average age of carer 51.3 50.7
Percentage of households with one or more carers resident 16.8 16.0

Table 82 Health Key facts, Fife and Scotland 2011


 
Fife Scotland
% Very good health 50.8 52.5
% Good health 31.0 29.7
% Fair health 12.8 12.2
% Bad health 4.2 4.3
% Very bad health 1.2 1.3

Table 83 General Health, Fife and Scotland 2011

Fife Scotland
% Limited a lot 9.5 9.6
% Limited a little 10.8 10.1
% Not limited 79.7 80.4

Table 84 Long-term health problem or disability, Fife and Scotland 2011

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
    Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Table 85 Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group; Fife

  Population No Conditions One or more conditions
    No % No %  
All people 365,198 247,857 68% 117,341 32%  
0 to 15 64,397 57,394 89% 7,003 11%  
16 to 24 42,525 35,471 83% 7,054 17%  
25 to 34 41,589 33,733 81% 7,856 19%  
35 to 49 78,487 58,108 74% 20,379 26%  
50 to 64 74,129 42,157 57% 31,972 43%  
65 to 74 35,181 14,436 41% 20,745 59%  
75 to 84 21,155 5,598 26% 15,557 74%  
85 and over 7,735 960 12% 6,775 88%  

Table 86 Self reported presence of health conditions by age group; Fife

Life Expectancy

In Fife, life expectancy at birth was higher for females (81.2 years) than for males (77.6 years) in 2014-16. Male life expectancy at birth has increased more rapidly than female life expectancy at birth between 2001-03 and 2014-16. In Fife, life expectancy at birth is higher than at Scotland level for both females and males.

Figure 42 Life Expectancy at birth, by gender in Fife
Source: NRS (June 2018) Fife Profile

Life expectancy in Scotland and Fife remains consistently slightly higher for females, with a female born today in Scotland expected to live an extra 4 years. In Fife, this figure is comparable at 3.6 years, and the trend is consistent for all age groups. Of note is that life expectancy has reduced very slightly in both Scotland and Fife over the past year, this is consistent with a UK-wide slow down. 

Age            x Scotland Fife
Males Females Males Females
lx[2] exo[3] lx exo lx exo lx exo
0 100000.0 77.0 100000.0 81.1 100000.0 77.2 100000.0 80.8
1 99654.5 76.3 99704.4 80.3 99462.8 76.6 99564.1 80.2
5 99584.1 72.3 99653.8 76.4 99398.8 72.6 99513.1 76.2
10 99542.6 67.4 99627.6 71.4 99307.1 67.7 99497.1 71.2
15 99490.8 62.4 99581.9 66.4 99257.5 62.7 99462.0 66.2
20 99296.0 57.5 99483.8 61.5 99056.4 57.9 99398.0 61.3
25 99017.1 52.7 99359.6 56.5 98835.2 53.0 99183.5 56.4
30 98545.7 47.9 99180.6 51.6 98318.5 48.3 98990.4 51.5
35 97851.2 43.2 98861.3 46.8 97508.4 43.6 98597.3 46.7
40 96928.4 38.6 98310.4 42.0 96596.9 39.0 97809.8 42.1
45 95542.9 34.1 97540.9 37.4 95536.7 34.4 97119.6 37.3
50 93755.9 29.8 96487.9 32.7 94178.5 29.9 95886.9 32.8
55 91441.8 25.4 94937.0 28.2 91649.7 25.6 94212.9 28.3
60 88131.2 21.3 92641.2 23.9 88525.7 21.5 91980.6 24.0
65 83214.8 17.4 89227.8 19.7 83754.9 17.5 88842.5 19.7
70 75955.3 13.8 84050.6 15.7 76464.8 14.0 83940.1 15.7
75 65561.1 10.6 75995.4 12.2 66628.1 10.7 75849.3 12.1
80 51398.8 7.9 63739.3 9.0 53078.4 7.8 63735.6 9.0
85 34008.2 5.6 46844.5 6.4 34467.3 5.6 46733.4 6.3
90 16422.2 4.0 26234.4 4.4 16631.1 3.9 26150.8 4.3

Table 87 Life Expectancy in Fife and Scotland, by age band

Source: NRS (12 December 2018) Life Expectancy for Administrative Areas within Scotland 2015-2017, Table 1: Abridged life statistics

Healthy Life Expectancy

Life expectancy (LE[4]) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE[5]) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. In Fife, Life Expectancy at birth is 79 and while Healthy Life Expectancy is 64.3. This means a person is likely to experience 14 years of ‘not healthy’ years in old age (65+) and this is similar to the national average:

  LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected ‘not healthy’ years
LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
Fife 79.04 78.85 79.23 64.34 64.25 64.44 14.69
Scotland 78.77 78.72 78.82 64.21 64.18 64.23 14.56

Table 88 Life table for life expectancy and healthy life expectancy calculations, Fife and Scotland 5-year period 2009-2013

Source: ScotPHO Health life expectancy: local authorities (12 December 2017)

In Fife, LE and HLE in Fife loosely follows Scotland’s averages, with 76.9 and 63.3 years for males and 81.0 and 65.4 for females respectively.

Males and older age

  • Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest male LE at birth (80.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest male LE at birth (72.6 years).
  • HLE at birth broadly followed the same pattern, with East Dunbartonshire having the highest male HLE (68.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest (55.9 years).
  • This means that a boy born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 7.4 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
    LE 95% CIs   HLE 95% CIs  
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 80.3 79.8 80.8 68.3 68.1 68.5 12.0
Fife 76.9 76.6 77.2 63.3 63.2 63.4 13.6
Glasgow City 72.6 72.4 72.9 55.9 55.8 56.0 16.7
Scotland 76.6 76.5 76.7 63.1 63.1 63.2 13.5

Table 89 Healthy life expectancy, Fife and Scotland areas

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) 2009-2013 Cycle

Females and older age

  • Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest female LE at birth (83.4 years), and Glasgow City the lowest female LE at birth (78.4 years).
  • This means that a girl born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 6.9 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.

 
  LE 95% CIs   HLE 95% CIs Expected ‘not healthy’ years
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 83.4 82.9 83.8 69.5 69.2 69.7 13.9
Fife 81.0 80.8 81.3 65.4 65.3 65.5 15.7
Glasgow City 78.4 78.2 78.7 58.5 58.4 58.6 20.0
Scotland 80.8 80.8 80.9 65.3 65.2 65.3 15.6

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle 

Unplanned Hospital Attendances and Emergency Admissions[6]

Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Unplanned Hospital Attendances rate than the rest of Scotland and this gap is projected to remain constant. Emergency admissions are however increasing.

Figure 43 Emergency Admissions and Unplanned Hospital Attendances, Fife and Scotland 

Figure 44 Unplanned Hospital Attendances, Fife and Scotland

Source: Improvement Service (2018) Community Planning Outcomes Profiles 

Early Mortality (under 75)[7]

Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Early Mortality Rate than the rest of Scotland:

Figure 45 Early mortality in Fife and Scotland

Source: Improvement Service (2018) Community Planning Outcomes Profile

Fragility[8]

Fife has a higher fragility index than the rest of Scotland, and this has been increasing over the past 10 years:

Figure 46 Fragility Index, Fife and Scotland

Source: Improvement Service (2018) Community Planning Outcomes Profile

Justice and Personal Security

Hate crime, homicides and sexual/ domestic abuse

The Scottish Household Survey reports on individuals’ experience of discrimination or harassment. For people aged 60+, 4% reported experiencing discrimination and 2% harassment in Fife. This is much lower than the 16-39 age group which increase from 9% in 2016 to 14% in 2017.

  Discrimination % Harassment %
  Yes No Yes No
Fife 2017        
16-39 14 86 11 89
40-59 6 94 6 94
60+ 4 96 2 98
All 8 92 6 94
Scotland 2017      
16-39 9 91 8 92
40-59 8 92 6 94
60+ 3 97 3 97
All 7 93 6 94

 Table 90 Experience of discrimination and harassment in Fife, by Age group

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables (12 December 2018) Table 4.13

Participation

Access to services

People are 65+ on average tend to report local services positively and that the local authority provides services designed for needs and does its best with money available. Lower scores are reported for people in the 16-39 and 40-64 age groups however. This compares to the 2016 Scottish Household Survey, with a marked drop in the 65+ age group rating communication positively from 61% to 51%, along with ‘high quality services’ falling from 60% to 50%.

Figure 47 Percentage agreeing with various statements about local council services

16-39 40-64 65+ All
Fife 2017
Good at communicating services 42 44 51 45
High quality services 38 48 50 45
Good at communicating performance 31 35 46 36
Services designed for needs 44 35 56 43
Does its best with money available 44 45 55 47
Addressing key issues 34 36 49 38
Good at listening 26 25 39 28
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 30 31 23 29
I want greater involvement in decisions 34 40 24 34

 

Scotland 2017
Good at communicating services 39 42 49 43
High quality services 41 38 44 41
Good at communicating performance 28 36 42 34
Services designed for needs 38 34 40 37
Does its best with money available 34 40 48 39
Addressing key issues 31 31 37 33
Good at listening 23 22 26 24
I can influence decisions affecting my local area 24 23 19 23
I want greater involvement in decisions 38 35 22 33

Table 91 Percentage agreeing with various statements about local council services

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 9.3 [01 Nov 2018] 

Social and community cohesion

In Fife and Scotland in 2017, the Scottish Household Survey reports a drop across all age groups for people reporting to belong ‘Very Strongly’ to their community. This compares to 2016 when the strength of belonging to community was reported lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole.

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2017
Age
16-39 21 46 24 6 2
40-59 21 61 13 6
60+ 42 48 9 0
All 21 46 24 6 2
Scotland 2017
Age
16-39 24 46 21 7 2
40-59 35 45 15 5 0
60+ 47 39 10 3 1
All 24 46 21 7 2

Table 92 Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.17 [01 Nov 2018]

[1] Please note: all the information in this section is based on the Scotland’s Census 2011

[2] The column headed lx shows the numbers who would survive to the exact age of x out of 100,000 persons who, from birth, were subject to the mortality probabilities indicated by the death records for 2013-2015.

[3] Column exo shows the expectation of life, that is, the average number of years of life left to persons aged exactly x who are subject to the 2013-2015 mortality probabilities from age x onwards.

[4] Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points

[5] As above

[6] A&E attendances, as well other hospital attendances should decrease with better provision and use of primary care and community-based services, better preventative and continuous care in the home, and improved self-care. As a measure this indicates a range of outcomes, such as integration of health and social care.

[7] This relates to European Age Standardised Rate of deaths which is the mortality rate of persons under 75 that would have been found if the population of that area had the same age-composition (proportion of total population in each five year age class) as a hypothetical European population.

[8] The fragility index combines 3 measures – De-population, Old Age Dependency Ratio (OADR) and Rural depopulation: this considers the proportion of the total population (or might consider the working age population) that are living in rural or rural remote areas. This is an inverse index so that if the rural population proportion is falling, the index increases.