A person has a disability if she or he has a physical or mental impairment that has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on that person’s ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities[1].

This includes sensory impairment and the period described as ‘long-term’ means that it has lasted or is likely to last at least 12 months, or for the rest of the person’s life. Life conditions such as HIV, cancer and multiple sclerosis are included, as well as people living with severe disfigurements, with the exception of unremoved tattoos and piercings. People certified by an ophthalmologist as blind, a severely sight-impaired, sight-impaired or partially sighted are also protected as having a ‘deemed disability’.

Interesting facts about Disability

  • 1 in 5 Fifers across all ages have their day-to-day activities limited
  • After 50, this increases from 1 in 4 people (26%), to 4 out of 5 for 85+ year olds (83%)
  • 1% of Fifers have one or more long-term health conditions
  • 6% of Fifers aged 16-24 reported having a learning difficulty
  • 1% reported ‘mental health conditions’, increasing to 36.7% of those aged 85+
  • 5% reported ‘blindness and partial sight loss’, increasing to 36.7% in the 85+ age group
  • 9% of adults with a learning disability that have an autism spectrum diagnosis
  • The onset of deafness or partial hearing loss is marked from the 50-64 age group (18.3%, up from 2.8% for 35-49 year olds)
  • Fife performs twice as well as the national average (74.8% vs 34.8%) in finding alternative opportunities for adults with learning difficulties
  • Employability Fund MA starts self-identifying with an impairment, health condition or learning difficulty is 24.7% in Fife compared to the national EF figure of 19.6%
  • With 88.6% of adults with Learning Disability with a Personal Living Plan, Fife fares well above the national average of 58.6%
  • Fife adults with a learning disability have a lower attendance rate at day centres for this group at 16.3% (vs 19.0% nationally)
  • By 2016, there was a low level of use of Local Area Coordination in Fife at 1.3% of all adults, compared to 14.7% across Scotland
  • A higher proportion (65.8%) of adults with Learning Disability live alone in Fife, compared to Scotland’s average (55.3%)
  • Advocacy is used by 13.3% of adults with learning disability Fife, which is noticeably higher than the national average of 5.7%

Demography

The 2011 census shows comparable figures between Scotland and Fife’s proportion of the population that is either limited a lot (9.5% vs 9.6%) or a little (10.8% vs 10.1%) in everyday activity due to a long-term health problem or a disability. This is distinct from the proportion who are living with one or more long-term conditions (32.1%) who are managing day-to-day activities without reporting limitations.

As expected, this increased over the years. Across the population of Fife, 20% of report their day to day activities limited and from the age range of 50-64, this proportion increases to 26% and goes up to 83% of people aged 85+. Similarly, the prevalence of recorded disability rises with age, with around 7% of children disabled in 2015/2016, compared to 14% of working age adults and 44% of adults over State Pension age[2]. 

Fife Scotland
% Limited a lot 9.5 9.6
% Limited a little 10.8 10.1
% Not limited 79.7 80.4

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Long-term health problem or disability 


 
Fife Scotland
% With no condition 67.9 70.1
% With one or more long-term health conditions 32.1 29.9
% With deafness or partial hearing loss 7.3 6.6
% With blindness or partial sight loss 2.5 2.4
% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome) 0.5 0.5
% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia) 2.4 2.0
% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome) 0.7 0.6
% With physical disability 7.2 6.7
% With mental health condition 4.1 4.4
% With other condition 20.3 18.7

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011
Long-term health conditions profile for Fife

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011
Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group, under 16; Fife

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011
Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group, working age; Fife

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
  Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011
Limiting long term health problem or disability by age group, older people; Fife

There are clear patterns across disability, age and gender characteristics in Fife, with a larger proportion of younger males whose day-to-day activities are limited a lot at the highest at 63.5% in the 5 to 9 age group and 67% in the 10 to 14 age group.

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
0 to 4 188 103 54.8% 85 45.2%
5 to 9 345 219 63.5% 126 36.5%
10 to 14 467 313 67.0% 154 33.0%
15 103 70 68.0% 33 32.0%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 (Day-to-day activities limited a lot); Fife

Limiting long term health problem or disability

Females in the 45 to 49 and 85+ age groups have the highest proportions of Fifers limited a lot with 58.8% and 71.1% of each age band respectively (Note: this second figure is as expected as there are over twice as many females as males in the 85+ age group).

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
16 to 17 193 113 58.5% 80 41.5%
18 to 19 209 113 54.1% 96 45.9%
20 to 24 511 282 55.2% 229 44.8%
25 to 29 593 309 52.1% 284 47.9%
30 to 34 726 386 53.2% 340 46.8%
35 to 39 1149 546 47.5% 603 52.5%
40 to 44 1696 771 45.5% 925 54.5%
45 to 49 2016 831 41.2% 1185 58.8%
50 to 54 2498 1132 45.3% 1366 54.7%
55 to 59 3021 1412 46.7% 1609 53.3%
60 to 64 3702 1906 51.5% 1796 48.5%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011  (Day-to-day activities limited a lot);

Limiting long term health problem or disability; working age, Fife 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
65 to 69 3284 1680 51.2% 1604 48.8%
70 to 74 3258 1496 45.9% 1762 54.1%
75 to 79 3368 1484 44.1% 1884 55.9%
80 to 84 3289 1283 39.0% 2006 61.0%
85 and over 4213 1219 28.9% 2994 71.1%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011   (Day-to-day activities limited a lot)

Limiting long term health problem or disability; older people, Fife

By comparison, there is an even distribution across ages groups and genders of people who do not have their day-to-day activities limited. This decreases with age as expected, and is slightly gendered in line with the higher life expectancy females. 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
0 to 4 20321 10394 51.1% 9927 48.9%
5 to 9 18105 9176 50.7% 8929 49.3%
10 to 14 18728 9413 50.3% 9315 49.7%
15 3937 1963 49.9% 1974 50.1%

 Limiting long term health problem or disability, under 16 ; Fife

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 (Day-to-day activities not limited)

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
16 to 17 8164 4021 49.3% 4143 50.7%
18 to 19 8900 4453 50.0% 4447 50.0%
20 to 24 22502 10818 48.1% 11684 51.9%
25 to 29 19117 9480 49.6% 9637 50.4%
30 to 34 18892 9202 48.7% 9690 51.3%
35 to 39 20321 9962 49.0% 10359 51.0%
40 to 44 23690 11760 49.6% 11930 50.4%
45 to 49 23432 11552 49.3% 11880 50.7%
50 to 54 20777 10515 50.6% 10262 49.4%
55 to 59 16876 8336 49.4% 8540 50.6%
60 to 64 17183 8419 49.0% 8764 51.0%

Limiting long term health problem or disability, working age; Fife
Source:
Scotland’s Census 2011 (Day-to-day activities not limited)

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
  Number Number % Number %
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
65 to 69 12188 5826 47.8% 6362 52.2%
70 to 74 8525 3940 46.2% 4585 53.8%
75 to 79 5423 2415 44.5% 3008 55.5%
80 to 84 2587 1093 42.2% 1494 57.8%
85 and over 1284 494 38.5% 790 61.5%

 Limiting long term health problem or disability, older people; Fife
Source:
Scotland’s Census 2011  (Day-to-day activities not limited)

The 2011 census listed ‘deafness or partial hearing loss’ was reported by 7.3% of the Fife population, and ‘physical disability’ as reported by 7.2%, but there is no further breakdown of type of physical impairment across protected characteristics available at this time.

Of note is 6% of Fifers aged 16-24 reported having a learning difficulty, and that the onset of deafness or partial hearing loss is marked from the 50-64 age group (18.3%, up from 2.8% for 35-49 year olds). Physical disability start to rise from the 50-64 age group onward and ‘Mental health conditions’ were reported by 4.1% of the population, with a rise in the 35-49 age group at 6.3% but markedly high at 36.7% of those aged 85+.

‘Blindness and partial sight loss’ was reported by 2.5% of Fifers, and is high at 36.7% in the 85+ age group. The tables below give more details on the distribution of those conditions across age groups:

  Total 0-15 16-24
All people 365,198 % 64,397 % 42,525 %
Deafness or partial hearing loss 26,584 7.3% 454 0.7% 415 1.0%
Blindness or partial sight loss 9,307 2.5% 292 0.5% 285 0.7%
Learning disability 1,667 0.5% 393 0.6% 273 0.6%
Learning difficulty 8,612 2.4% 1,895 2.9% 2,563 6.0%
Developmental Disorder 2,635 0.7% 1,419 2.2% 720 1.7%
Physical disability 26,246 7.2% 558 0.9% 518 1.2%
Mental health condition 15,032 4.1% 271 0.4% 1,108 2.6%
Other condition 74,313 20.3% 3,827 5.9% 2,991 7.0%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Self reported health conditions by type
Children and Young People (Working Age) age group; Fife

  25-34 35-49 50-64
All people 41,589 78,487 74,129
Deafness or partial hearing loss 587 1.4% 2,224 2.8% 6,046 8.2%
Blindness or partial sight loss 288 0.7% 847 1.1% 1,617 2.2%
Learning disability 222 0.5% 353 0.4% 297 0.4%
Learning difficulty 1,466 3.5% 1,519 1.9% 841 1.1%
Developmental Disorder 185 0.4% 172 0.2% 96 0.1%
Physical disability 763 1.8% 3,278 4.2% 7,532 10.2%
Mental health condition 2,216 5.3% 4,920 6.3% 3,705 5.0%
Other condition 4,089 9.8% 12,913 16.5% 23,167 31.3%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Self reported health conditions by type – Adults (Working Age); Fife

  65-74 75-84 85+
All people 35,181 21,155 7,735
Deafness or partial hearing loss 6,435 18.3% 6,582 31.1% 3,841 49.7%
Blindness or partial sight loss 1,531 4.4% 2,369 11.2% 2,078 26.9%
Learning disability 85 0.2% 35 0.2% 0.0%
Learning difficulty 221 0.6% 93 0.4% 9 0.1%
Developmental Disorder 26 0.1% 12 0.1% 14 0.2%
Physical disability 5,634 16.0% 5,126 24.2% 5 0.1%
Mental health condition 964 2.7% 1,033 4.9% 2,837 36.7%
Other condition 14,393 40.9% 9,595 45.4% 815 10.5%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Self reported health conditions by type – Older People; Fife

Visual Impairment and Vision Loss and Gender

For the 7% of people in Fife that said that they experienced deafness or partial hearing loss, this increases with age, from less than 1% in the 0-15 age group, to 50% in the 85 and over age group. This is evenly distributed across genders:

  No. of people registered as Partially Sighted   No. of people registered as Blind
Female Male Total   Female Male Total
Under 16 17 24 41 10 12 22
16 – 29 31 38 69 23 27 50
30 – 49 44 73 117 42 54 96
50 – 64 73 65 138 77 79 156
65 – 74 66 70 136 50 56 106
75 & over 421 223 644 392 188 580

Source: Fife Society for the Blind – September 2017 (unpublished)

Learning Disability and Learning Difficulties

There were 1,118 adults with a learning disability living in Fife in 2016, which is a lower rate (3.9 per 1000) compared to Scotland’s (5.2 per 1000) – in both cases, this represents a noticeable change from 2015 of -1.1 change in rate: 

  Total Adults known per 1,000 population Change in rate from 2015
Fife 1,184 3.9 -1.1
Scotland 23,177 5.2 -0.9

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017 Annex B1

 Across Scotland and in Fife, there is a consistent intersection of gender and disability characteristics, with more males diagnosed with learning disability across all age groups: 

MALES
Area / Age range 16-17 18-20 21-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+
Fife 0 12 257 103 128 109 61
Scotland 188 1,123 4,821 1,951 2,324 1,976 1,308
FEMALES
Area / Age range 16-17 18-20 21-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+
Fife 0 2 173 76 109 91 63
Scotland 75 518 2,780 1,432 1,795 1,596 1,290

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017 Annex B1 

Fife has a relatively higher proportion (28.9%) of adults with a learning disability that have an autism spectrum diagnosis, compared to Scotland’s average (20.5%). Classical autism is the majority (47.95%) diagnosis for this group, which is higher than the Scottish average (41.58%). Also, 26.02% are diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome (vs 13.86% national average), and a much lower proportion have a ‘Other’ diagnosis (26% vs 44.56%). 

 

 

 

Area

Autism Spectrum diagnosis
No AS Diagnosis Not known AS diagnosis as % of all adults All adults with LD
Fife 820 22 28.9 1,184
Scotland 14,530 3,901 20.5 23,186

 

 

 

 

Area

Autism Spectrum diagnosis
Classical Autism Asperger’s Syndrome Other AS diagnosis Total AS diagnosis
Fife 164 47.95% 89 26.02% 89 26.02% 342
Scotland 1,977 41.58% 659 13.86% 2,119 44.56% 4,755

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B2 Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Education

Fife has a relatively low rate of pupils who are assessed or declared as having a disability in publicly funded schools[3], at 17.3[4] compared to the Scottish average of 23.8. By comparison with other local authorities, South Ayrshire has a high rate of 73.6 while the Outer Hebrides have the lowest at 7.4.

Assessed Declared Physical Curri-culum Commu-nication Rate[5]
Na h-Eileanan Siar 24 10 23 11 7.4
Fife 639 225 167 559 248 17.6
South Ayrshire 520 511 57 484 131 73.6
Scotland 12,883 3,382 3,111 10,485 5,737 23.8

Source: Pupil census 2016 supplementary data
Table 5.4 Pupils who are assessed or declared as having a disability

The 2016 pupil census reports the proportion of pupils with additional support needs (ASN) due to Learning disability as comparable in Fife (18%) to Scotland as whole (17%). The proportion of pupils with ASN due to Physical or motor impairment and Communication Support Needs are the next highest in Fife (11% each) while across Scotland, this is Language or Speech Disorders and Autism spectrum disorder (9% each).

Fife Scotland
Count % Count %
Pupils for whom reason for support is reported 133 22% 6,493 26%
Learning disability 109 18% 4,311 17%
Dyslexia 0 0% 155 1%
Other specific learning difficulty (e.g. numeric) 11 2% 491 2%
Other moderate learning difficulty 0 0% 961 4%

Of note is that in Fife, 11% of pupils required support in special schools due to physical or motor impairment, compared to 6% across Scotland, and that 8% had a physical health problem (vs 4% nationally).

There was no data available on support requested on the basis of Mental health, Interrupted learning, English as an additional language, Pupils Looked after or More able pupils at this time through the Pupil Census in Fife.

  Fife Scotland
Visual impairment 36 6% 713 3%
Hearing impairment 16 3% 342 1%
Deafblind 0 0% 10 0%
Physical or motor impairment 65 11% 1,397 6%
Language or speech disorder 39 6% 2,185 9%
Autistic spectrum disorder 50 8% 2,262 9%
Social, emotional and behavioural difficulty 32 5% 1,741 7%
Physical health problem 51 8% 953 4%
Mental health problem 0 0% 164 1%
Interrupted learning 0 0% 186 1%
English as an additional language 0 0% 234 1%
Looked after 0 0% 276 1%
More able pupil 0 0% 0 0%
Communication Support Needs 66 11% 1,422 6%
Total 608 100% 25,354 100%

Source: Pupil census 2016 supplementary data 2016
Table 8.7: Reasons for support for pupils based in special schools

Also, we do not have at this time the detailed breakdown of attainment or destinations of disabled young people in Fife’s schools. It is however well-known that there is a gap reaching positive destinations after secondary school, with 84% of disabled young people across Scotland in 2015-2016, compared to 91.4% of all school leavers.

Declared or Assessed Disabled
Follow-up Destination Yes No Total
Higher Education 17.7 37.8 37.3
Further Education 43.0 21.9 22.4
Training 3.4 1.7 1.7
Employment 17.6 29.0 28.7
Voluntary Work 0.8 0.4 0.4
Activity Agreement 1.5 0.9 0.9
Positive Destinations 84.0 91.6 91.4
Unemployed Seeking 7.5 5.7 5.8
Unemployed Not Seeking 7.6 1.8 1.9
Unknown 0.9 0.9 0.9
Other Destinations 16.0 8.4 8.6
Number of leavers 1,218 50,895 52,113

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations, supplementary data (2017) – Table L1.9. Percentage of school leavers from publicly funded secondary schools in Scotland by follow-up

Attainment of pupils with Additional Support Needs is nationally consistently lower than that of pupils with no ASN, with 36.6% (vs 61.7%) attaining 1 or more qualification at SCQF6 in 2015/2016.

% of pupils attainting 1 or more qualification(s)
2014/15 2015/16
SCQF4
level 4
SCQF level 5 SCQF level 6 SCQF
level 4
SCQF level 5 SCQF level 6
ASN 88.9 64.9 33.3 89.9 67.6 36.6
No ASN 98.0 90.3 67.0 98.2 91.0 69.1
All Leavers 96.2 85.2 60.2 96.3 85.6 61.7

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations, supplementary data (2017) –
Table 6. % of school leavers by attainment at SCQF 4 to 6

Teacher Profiles: Disability

*Disability profiles of primary/secondary/special school teachers are not available at this time. However equality monitoring profiles are important to report on as a fair and proportionate representation in the key areas of public life such as education is crucial in shaping norms. There is increasing evidence of a need for greater diversity of people taking STEM courses and training programmes and employed in the STEM sectors and covers gender equality as well as race and disability among other disparities[6].

Fife College baseline data has 5% of staff declaring a disability and this has slightly reduced to 4% in 2015-16. The percentage of the number of people who might have a disability is estimated at just under 19%. It has been flagged there may still be significant underreporting of disability or that the College is not recruiting people with disabilities[7].

Higher education and lifelong learning

Fife performs twice as well as the national average (74.8% vs 34.8%) in finding alternative opportunities and further education places (10.7% vs 6.2%) for adults with learning difficulties: 

Local authority Has alternative opportunities Does not have alternative opportunities Not known As % of all adults All adults
Edinburgh 123 1,998 0 5.8 2,121
Fife 886 264 34 74.8 1,184
South Ayrshire 602 0 0 100.0 602
Scotland 8,076 9,206 5,904 34.8 23,186

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B12b: Alternative opportunities
 

  In education, time not specified 2.5 days per week or fewer 3 days per week or more Not currently in education Not known Total in education as % of all adults All Adults
East Ayrshire 5 0 0 452 53 1.6 513
Fife 20 73 34 1,046 11 10.7 1,184
Shetland Isles 0 30 0 115 0 21.8 147
Scotland 189 695 550 11,241 10,511 6.2 23,186

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B13:  Further education

Modern Apprenticeships (MA)

Disabled young people accessing MAs across Scotland has improved over the 2016-2017 year period from 4.7% to 8.6%[8]. In Fife, the proportion of MA starts self-identifying an impairment, health condition or learning difficulty was higher than the national average at 9.5%. This is proportional to the estimated population:

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

Of note is that the proportion of Employability Fund MA starts self-identifying with an impairment, health condition or learning difficulty is 24.7% in Fife compared to the national EF figure of 19.6%:

 Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

Work

Employment and disability

Scotland’s employment rate for those aged 16-64 who were Equality Act disabled by November 2017 was 45.9% compared to 82.2% for those who were not Equality Act disabled[9].

Equality Act Disabled Not Equality Act Disabled All
Rate Change on year Rate Change on year Rate Change on year
Economic Activity Rate* 51.0 3.1 ñ 85.2 -0.3 ò 78.9 1.0 ñ
Employment Rate* 45.9 4.1 ñ 82.2 0.3 ñ 75.5 1.7 ñ
Unemployment Rate 9.9 -2.6 ò 3.5 -0.7 ò 4.2 -1.0 ò
Inactivity Rate* 49.0 -3.1 ò 14.8 0.3 ñ 21.1 -1.0 ò

 Source: Labour Market Briefing – November 2017

Table Q4: Economic activity rates of the population aged 16-64 by disability

There are some gender characteristics observable in this, with a higher rate (53.4) of females that were Equality Act disabled that were economically active than males (47.7), with a marked increase in the past year:

Equality Act Disabled
Males Females
Rate Change on year Rate Change on year
Economic Activity rate 47.7 -2.0 ò 53.4 7.0 ñ
Employment rate 41.7 -0.9 ò 49.1 7.8 ñ
Unemployment rate 12.7 -1.8 ò 8.0 -2.9 ò
Economic Inactivity rate 52.3 2.0 ñ 46.6 -7.0 ò

Source: Labour Market Briefing – November 2017
Table Q5: Economic activity rates of the population aged 16-64 by disability and gender – Equality Act Disabled

There was also in the same year a slight drop in economic activity and employment for females that were not Equality Act disabled:

Not Equality Act Disabled
Males Females
Rate Change on year Rate Change on year
Economic Activity rate 89.6 0.6 ñ 80.7 -1.1 ò
Employment rate 86.0 1.0 ñ 78.3 -0.4 ò
Unemployment rate 4.0 -0.6 ò 2.9 -0.9 ò
Economic Inactivity rate 10.4 -0.6 ò 19.3 1.1 ñ

Source: Labour Market Briefing – November 2017
Table Q5: Economic activity rates of the population aged 16-64 by disability and gender – Equality Act Disabled

The effect of age and disability characteristics were however more pronounced for the same period, with an noticeable increase employment rate of Equality Act disabled people in the 16-24 and 50-64 age groups. By comparison, there was a smaller rate increase in employment of people that were not Equality Act disabled only the 25-34 age group.

Equality Act Disabled Not Equality Act Disabled
Rate* Change on year Rate* Change on year
16-24 42.2 6.9 ñ 63.7 -0.4 ò
25-34 56.7 -0.3 ò 87.7 3.2 ñ
35-49 48.4 0.7 ñ 90.6 -0.6 ò
50-64 40.6 5.8 ñ 81.3 -0.3 ò

Source: Labour Market Briefing – November 2017
Table Q6: Employment rates of the population aged 16-64  by disability status and age group , Scotland

By 2016, Fife had only a marginally lower level employment rate at 42% against 42.9% nationally.

Source: Scottish Government Evidence Finder: Disability: Labour Market

This rate of employment has decreased over the past years, being at 48.3% in 2014 and 42% in 2015. It worth noting that changes in the methods of measurements might have had a significant effect on this indicator and that the 2013 figures do not exist in this format[10].

Geography

 

2014 2015 2016
Rate Level Rate Level Rate Level
East Ayrshire 33.4% 5,400 36.5% 6,000 30.8% 5,800
Fife 48.3% 23,200 42.0% 17,200 40.9% 18,700
Scotland 41.5% 260,400 41.9% 272,000 42.9% 287,000
East Dunbartonshire 52.1% 5,400 44.7% 3,800 58.6% 5,000

Source: SG (23 May 2017) Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Annual Population Survey 2016:  Table 1.5 Employment rates and levels for people with a disability

Up to 2016, Fife has been performing better than the national average in providing employment opportunities for people with learning disability with 12.5% compared to 6.3%. By contrast North Ayrshire does poorly at 0.5% and the Shetland Isles perform very well at 34.3% of the population. 

  Not currently in employment <16 hours per week >16 hours per week In employment but hours not recorded Total in Employment Not known % of total adults All Adults
Fife 1,242 46 23 121 190 83 12.5 1,515
North Ayrshire 30 0 5 0 3 543 0.5 575
Shetland Isles 63 15 38 0 53 39 34.2 155
Scotland 14,749 485 604 608 1,697 2,909 6.3 27,101

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability (10th August 2016)
Learning Disability Statistics Scotland, 2015 Annex B10: Employment opportunities

 In 2016, Fife had a slightly higher than the national average of total benefit claimants (13.6%), with a similar proportion of which who were disabled (0.9%). 

Fife

 (Numbers)

Fife

 (%)

Scotland(%)
Total Claimants 31,700 13.6 13.0
Job Seekers 3,920 1.7 1.4
ESA And Incapacity Benefits 17,820 7.7 7.8
Lone Parents 2,470 1.1 0.9
Carers 4,410 1.9 1.7
Others On Income Related Benefits 470 0.2 0.2
Disabled 2,120 0.9 0.9
Bereaved 480 0.2 0.2
Main Out-Of-Work Benefits 24,690 10.6 10.2

 Source: NOMIS Labour Market Profile – Fife
Working-age client group – main benefit claimants (November 2016)

Living Standards

Poverty

Across Scotland, poverty rates tend to be high for households with a disabled adult. In 2015-16, 19% of people in families with a disabled adult were in relative poverty before housing costs (BHC). For families with no disabled adults the figure was 15%[11].

Similarly, limiting long-term health problems or disability are known to increase with deprivation. People who live in the most deprived decile were reported as twice as likely to be limited by a long-term health problem or disability than those in the least deprived decile (28% compared to 13%). Also, people who lived in the most deprived decile were over three times more likely to report that they were limited a lot by a long-term health problem of disability than those in the least deprived decile (16% compared to 5%)[12].

Before housing costs (BHC) in 2015/16, 19% of those in a family with a disabled adult were in poverty compared to 15% of those in families without a disabled adult. After housing costs (AHC) families in poverty with a disabled adult have remained steady (23%) since 2012/13.  In 2015/16 18% of people in a family without a disabled adult were in poverty AHC. 

Source: Scottish Government (9 Jun 2017) Poverty equality analysis

Housing

A slightly higher proportion (65.8%) of adults with Learning Disability live alone in Fife, compared to Scotland’s average (55.3%). Accommodation with 1-3 or 4+ residents otherwise follows similar trends. Of note is that in only 4.7% housing situation is unknown, which would explain higher values across all types of accommodation: 

Area Only person 1-3 4+ Not known All Adults
Fife 779 65.8% 230 19.4% 119 10.1% 56 4.7%
Scotland 12,822 55.3% 3,145 13.6% 1,599 6.9% 5,620 24.2%

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017 – Annex B4

Adaptations, Restrictions and Requirements

The Scottish House Conditions Survey 2013-2015 shows a lower proportion of dwellings with adaptations in Fife compared to Scotland (16% vs 19%) along with slightly above average proportion of individuals who are long-term sick or disabled (LTSD) and are restricted due to housing.

Age of Dwelling House or Flat Number of Bedrooms
Area % of LA Pre-1945 Post 1945 House Flat 1 or 2 3+
Dwellings with Adaptations
Fife 16% 20% 15% 16% 19% 18% 15%
Scotland 19% 17% 21% 17% 24% 23% 15%
LTSD individual restricted because of property
Fife 6% 7% 5% 6% 4% 4% 7%
Scotland 5% 5% 6% 5% 6% 6% 5%
Dwellings Requiring Adaptations
Fife 2% 3% 2% 2% 3% 1%
Scotland 3% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 2%

There were slightly more private rented households with adaptations in Fife than nationally (18% vs 15%), and also slightly more LTDS individuals restricted because of private rented property (5% vs 2%).

Tenure Household Type
Area % of LA Owner-occupied Social Housing Private Rented Older Families Other
Dwellings with Adaptations
Fife 16% 13% 24% 18% 22% 5% 17%
Scotland 19% 16% 29% 15% 32% 11% 16%
LTDS individual restricted because of property
Fife 6% 4% 11% 5% 5% 4% 7%
Scotland 5% 4% 10% 2% 9% 3% 5%
Dwellings Requiring Adaptations
Fife 2% 1% 4% 2% 1% 1% 3%
Scotland 3% 2% 5% 1% 4% 2% 2%

Source: SHCS Local Authority Tables 2013-2015: Adaptations

Social care

In 2014, 4.8% of adults claimed incapacity benefit, severe disability allowance or employment and support allowance; this was lower than the Scottish figure of 5.1%[13]. Looking at the distribution of households receiving care services, Fife had also a lower proportion at 5% compared to 8% nationally. Individuals in social housing (12%) and households with Older people were the main beneficiaries of care services.

In Fife in the past year, 88.6% of adults with Learning Disability with a Personal Living Plan, Fife fares well above the national average of 58.6%. The highest proportion for this is in the Orkney Islands at 98.7% but a worthwhile comparison is Dundee with a similar size population, but a much lower proportion at 68.8%.

Area Has a PLP Does not have a PLP Has not been asked Not known Has PLP as % for all adults All adults
Dundee City 787 103 53 201 68.8 1,144
Fife 1,049 97 0 38 88.6 1,184
Orkney Islands 80 0 0 0 98.7 79
Scotland 15,947 4,140 341 6,790 58.6 27,218

Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017 – Annex B7 Personal Life Plan

Health

Health outcomes

In general, people with a long-term limiting condition have considerably lower levels of good / very good general health than the rest of the population. In 2014, this gap was reported as considerable at 27.5% compared with 88.6% for non-disabled people[14]. Along with long-term physical or that limit their daily activities, disabled people have shown lower levels of mental wellbeing[15].

Similarly, the association between self-assessed health and disability is very strong. Only 27.3% of respondents with a limiting long-term condition reported being in good or very good heath compared to 74.2% average across Scotland’s population. For those without a limiting condition, 88.7% reported being in good health[16].

Life Expectancy and Disability

The Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities (CIPOLD) found that on average women with a learning disability died 20 years sooner than women in the general population, and men with a learning disability died 13 years sooner than men in the general population. The average age of death for different levels of impairment:

  • 5 for people with a mild learning disability
  • 64 for people with a moderate learning disability
  • 59 for people with a severe learning disability
  • 46 for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities

Justice and Personal Security

The Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-15 for instance reports disabled people in Scotland as being no more likely to be victim of crime than non-disabled people (rates of around 15% for each in 2014-15) but that they are less likely to feel safe walking alone in their neighbourhood after dark (57% compared to 78% of those with no disability)[17].

People with a limiting long-term condition are more likely to express “Low confidence in the police” at 19.4%, compared with 15% of the rest of the population. They are also less likely to have High confidence[18].

It is also known that the civil legal problems is higher for disabled people is high at 30%, compared to 19% in the general population. On average, only 39% of disabled people had solved their problems whereas 52% without a disability had succeeded in resolving their problems in 2014-2015[19].

Hate crime, homicides and sexual / domestic abuse

In 2016-17, 188 charges were reported with an aggravation of prejudice relating to disability, 6% fewer than in 2015-16. This is the first year that the number of charges reported has fallen since the legislation creating this aggravation came into force in 2010[20].

2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change
Male / Female
All aggravators 9,519 10,040 10,481 12,294 13,751 13,823 1%
Domestic 8,566 8,877 9,292 11,077 12,440 12,374 -1%
Racial 614 626 696 699 702 761 8%
Religious 275 370 272 256 241 245 2%
Sexual orientation 56 155 194 227 320 368 15%
Disability 5 9 21 30 40 68 70%
Transgender 3 3 6 5 8 7 -13%

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015-16

Table 12: People convicted with an aggravator recorded against the main charge by gender, 2010-11 to 2015-2016

Participation and Representation

Political and civic participation and representation

Across Scotland in 2016, the proportion of applicants for public appointments who declared having at least one disability (9.8%) was lower than in each of the four preceding years which ranged from 10.3% (in 2014) to 14.6% (in 2012). 10.1% of those appointed in 2016 declared a disability. In the earlier years, the proportion of appointments declaring a disability was slightly lower than the proportion of applicants[21], a further breakdown at local level is not available at this time.

Advocacy

Advocacy is used by 13.3% of adults with learning disability in Fife, which is noticeably higher than the national average of 5.7%. 

Area Professional Advocate Citizen/ independent Advocate Self Advocacy Group/ Collective Advocacy
Fife 55 38 21 43
Scotland 852 144 179 150

  

Area No advocate, advocate not required No advocate, advocate required Not known Total adults with advocate Adults who use an advocate as % of all adults
Fife 752 82 193 157 13.3
Scotland 7,279 395 8,950 1,325 5.7

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B8: Advocacy; Individual level data

Access to services

Adults with a learning disability in Fife also have a slightly lower attendance rate at day centres for this group at 16.3% (vs 19.0% nationally), with 980 not attending. Of comparable size in terms of service users, is Aberdeen City, which performs less well (8.2% attendance). 

Local authority <30 hours per week >30 hours or more per week amount of time not known Does not attend Not known Adults who attend as % of all adults All Adults
Aberdeen City 60 6 20 851 107 8.2 1,044
Eilean Siar 24 9 24 84 24 34.5 165
Fife 124 45 24 980 11 16.3 1,184
Scotland 2,491 699 1,211 14,211 4,574 19.0 23,186

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B8: Advocacy; Individual level data

By 2016, there was a low level of use of Local Area Coordination in Fife at 1.3% of all adults, compared to 14.7% across Scotland 


Area
Uses LAC Does not use LAC Uses LAC as % of all adults All Adults
Fife 15 1,169 1.3 1,184
Scotland 3,408 13,242 14.7 23,186

 Source: Scottish Commission for Learning Disability 2017
Annex B6a: Local Area Coordination

Travel and Access: Blue Badge Scheme

The Blue Badge scheme is a national scheme for those who have a permanent disability which means they are unable to walk or virtually unable to walk or those who are registered blind. A blue badge is intended to help those who would be unable to visit public buildings, shops and other places unless they can park close to their destination.

Blue Badges can be issued to adults, children or to organisations providing care. They can be used by badge holders who are drivers or passengers in any vehicle. You may be entitled to a Blue Badge if you meet the criteria detailed in the Can I get a Blue Badge guide. (this links to an external website). If you are eligible and live, work or study in study in Fife, apply here.

Blue Badges on Issue Sep-12 Sep-13 Sep-14 Sep-15 Sep-16 Sep-17
Individual 20827 19714 19805 17791 17745 17577
Organisation 186 115 97 113 101 118

Source: Number of blue badges issued in Fife from 2012 to 2017 (as at 30/9/2017) – Information and Statistics on Equality Groups in Fife 2017 (unpublished)

Travel and Access: Concessionary Travel Schemes

A person aged 60 or over, or an eligible disabled person holding a National Entitlement card (known in Fife as the Myfife card) is entitled to free bus travel throughout Scotland and discounted rail travel between any two Fife stations for £1.00 per single journey.

The card will display one of the following symbols (or a combination) in the bottom right hand corner:

This symbol on the card means card holder is entitled to free Scotland-wide bus travel and discounted off peak rail travel between any 2 rail stations in Fife for £1.00 per single journey.

This symbol on the card means a companion can travel with the card holder free on the bus, and also means the companion can accompany card holder for half fare between any two rail stations in Fife.  (Please note, the Taxicard Scheme was withdrawn as at 1 April 2016)

This symbol on the card indicates card holder are entitled to free Scotland-wide bus travel, free rail travel within Scotland and free ferry travel within Scotland.

If the card holder is a young person between the age of 16 and 18 or a full-time volunteer under 26 then he/she will be entitled to a Young Persons Travel card and a Scottish Youth Railcard. If the myfife card shows a “+1 symbol” then a companion can come free of charge. There were 2034 C card holders and 292 Ceye card holders in Fife on 18/09/2017:

Category and Card type 2016 2017
Disabled

 

C 2213 (under 60 with a disability) 2034
Ceye 270 (registered as partially sighted) 292
Companion

 

C+1 10569 10884
Ceye+1 759 (Registered blind or partially sighted+ care benefit) 716
Elderly
C (over 60years and over) 83577 86497
Total 97388 100423

Source: Information and Statistics on Equality Groups in Fife 2017 (unpublished)

[1] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p6

[2] Family Resources Survey 2015/2016

[3] Does not include grant aided special schools

[4] Assessed and/or declared as having a disability per 1,000 pupils

[5] Assessed and/or declared as having a disability per 1,000 pupils

[6] Scottish Government (2017) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – Education and Training Strategy for Scotland

[7] Fife College Mainstreaming report  (April 2017) http://www.fife.ac.uk/collegeinfo/Documents/Equality%20Mainstreaming%20Report%202017.pdf

[8] SDS (18 July 2017) Equality action plan – Year 1 update: For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland

[9] Labour Market Briefing – November 2017

[10] In January-March 2012 there was a change in the way those who did not respond to the question on disability were recorded, with those who did not respond no longer being automatically coded “not disabled” and in Apr-Jun 2013 there were significant changes to the questions relating to disability and long-term limiting health conditions. This has led to a discontinuity in the series and no data is currently available for 2013 due to the change mid-year.

[11] Scottish Government (9 June 2017) Poverty equality analysis.

[12] Scottish Government (2014) Equality Results from the 2011 Census Release 2

[13] Millard A, McCartney G, MacKinnon A, Van Heelsum A, Gasiorowski A, Barkat S. Fife Health and Wellbeing  Profiles – key indicators and overview. Edinburgh: ScotPHO; 2016.

[14] Scottish Surveys Core Questions (SSCQ) 2014 Table 22: Proportions rating general health “Good” or “Very good” – age standardised disability result

[15] Scottish Surveys Core Questions (SSCQ) Equality report)

[16] Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2015 Tables

[17] Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-15

[18] Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2014 – Supplementary analysis of Police Confidence

[19] Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-15

[20] The consensus in 207 is that this type of crime is under reported compared to other forms of hate crime, and this has led to a review of Hate Crime legislation by Police Scotland and COPFS in 2017.

[21] Public Appointments in Scotland 2016 Diversity Analysis Report – March 2017