From the National Records of Scotland 2017 Population Estimates, 21% of Fifers are of Pensionable Age, which is slightly above Scotland’s average of 19%. There are more females of pension age (23% or 43183) than males (19% or 33735). This is consistent with females having a higher life expectancy:
|Fife’s age groups:||Count||Percentage|
|All aged 65 & over||74592||33735||40857||20%||19%||21%|
|All aged 75 & over||32089||13459||18630||9%||7%||10%|
|All aged 85 & over||8587||3027||5560||2%||2%||3%|
Age groups and sex structure of Fife in 2017
A further breakdown in 5-year bands is given below for Older People and Very Old People (90+). There are over twice the number of females aged 90+ than males, with an estimated 2122 living in Fife in 2017.
|Area||65 – 69||70 – 74||75 – 79||80 – 84||85 – 89||90+|
Source: Source: NRS Estimated population mid-2017
Poverty and old age
In 2017, 69% of households in Fife for which the age highest income householder was 65+ managed well financially. This is slightly higher than nationally (67%) and the 16-39 bracket was more likely to ‘get by’ (46%) or not manage well (10%). Consistently, 3% of the 65+ age group reported as not managing well in Fife and nationally. There are clear gender patterns in this distribution with 60% of males managing well vs 46% of females. This compares to 2016 when all Fife households tend to manage well (65% vs 56%), with the 65+ age group being the most better off (78%, compared to 65% nationally):
|Male||Female||All Gender||16-39||40-64||65+||All Age|
|Does not manage well||8||8||8||10||10||3||8|
|Does not manage well||7||10||9||11||11||3||9|
Carers and Old Age
Fife has a high proportion of people aged 65 and over with high levels of care needs who are cared for at home. In 2017, this numbered to 900, which represents 27.7% of this group within Fife, compared to 35.2% nationwide (see Fife ScotPHO Indicator 24).
Health and Social Care
Home care clients in Fife receive on average more hours of care, at 17.1 compared to 11.7 in Scotland. The proportion of people aged 65+ receiving care is lower at 12.3 per 1000 in Fife compared 16.9 nationally.
|Number of clients||3,620||3,720||3,660|
|Hours per client||15.0||14.9||17.1|
|Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours||580||670||890|
|Populations aged 65+||72,400||72,400||72,400|
|Rate per 1,000 population||8.0||9.3||12.3|
|Number of clients||61,500||59,780||59,640|
|Hours per client||11.4||11.3||11.7|
|Number of clients age 65 plus receiving 10+ hours||17,570||16,630||16,910|
|Populations aged 65+||983,000||998,900||998,900|
|Rate per 1,000 population||17.9||16.6||16.9|
Census data showed that 67.9% of people report as living with no condition in Fife, compared to 70.1% across Scotland. As expected, with age the incidence of disability or limiting health conditions increases beyond the average (20%) from the 50-64 age group onwards at 26% of the population to 41% in the 65-74, 62% in the 75-84 and 83% over 85.
Self-reported health conditions were at 32% for Fife residents compared to 30% nationally. This also increases with age, with 59% of those aged 65-74 and 88% of those aged over 85.
|% With no condition||67.9||70.1|
|% With one or more long-term health conditions||32.1||29.9|
|% With deafness or partial hearing loss||7.3||6.6|
|% With blindness or partial sight loss||2.5||2.4|
|% With learning disability (for example, Down’s Syndrome)||0.5||0.5|
|% With learning difficulty (for example, dyslexia)||2.4||2.0|
|% With developmental disorder (for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome)||0.7||0.6|
|% With physical disability||7.2||6.7|
|% With mental health condition||4.1||4.4|
|% With other condition||20.3||18.7|
|Average age of a person with good or very good health||36.6||36.2|
|Average age of a person with a limiting long-term illness||59.3||59.2|
|Average age of carer||51.3||50.7|
|Percentage of households with one or more carers resident||16.8||16.0|
|% Very good health||50.8||52.5|
|% Good health||31.0||29.7|
|% Fair health||12.8||12.2|
|% Bad health||4.2||4.3|
|% Very bad health||1.2||1.3|
|% Limited a lot||9.5||9.6|
|% Limited a little||10.8||10.1|
|% Not limited||79.7||80.4|
|All||Day-to-day activities limited||Day-to-day activities not limited|
|0 to 15||64,397||3,306||5%||61,091||95%|
|16 to 24||42,525||2,959||7%||39,566||93%|
|25 to 34||41,589||3,580||9%||38,009||91%|
|35 to 49||78,487||11,044||14%||67,443||86%|
|50 to 64||74,129||19,293||26%||54,836||74%|
|65 to 74||35,181||14,468||41%||20,713||59%|
|75 to 84||21,155||13,145||62%||8,010||38%|
|85 and over||7,735||6,451||83%||1,284||17%|
|Population||No Conditions||One or more conditions|
|0 to 15||64,397||57,394||89%||7,003||11%|
|16 to 24||42,525||35,471||83%||7,054||17%|
|25 to 34||41,589||33,733||81%||7,856||19%|
|35 to 49||78,487||58,108||74%||20,379||26%|
|50 to 64||74,129||42,157||57%||31,972||43%|
|65 to 74||35,181||14,436||41%||20,745||59%|
|75 to 84||21,155||5,598||26%||15,557||74%|
|85 and over||7,735||960||12%||6,775||88%|
In Fife, life expectancy at birth was higher for females (81.2 years) than for males (77.6 years) in 2014-16. Male life expectancy at birth has increased more rapidly than female life expectancy at birth between 2001-03 and 2014-16. In Fife, life expectancy at birth is higher than at Scotland level for both females and males.
Figure 42 Life Expectancy at birth, by gender in Fife
Source: NRS (June 2018) Fife Profile
Life expectancy in Scotland and Fife remains consistently slightly higher for females, with a female born today in Scotland expected to live an extra 4 years. In Fife, this figure is comparable at 3.6 years, and the trend is consistent for all age groups. Of note is that life expectancy has reduced very slightly in both Scotland and Fife over the past year, this is consistent with a UK-wide slow down.
Healthy Life Expectancy
Life expectancy (LE) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. In Fife, Life Expectancy at birth is 79 and while Healthy Life Expectancy is 64.3. This means a person is likely to experience 14 years of ‘not healthy’ years in old age (65+) and this is similar to the national average:
|LE 95% CIs||HLE 95% CIs||Expected ‘not healthy’ years|
In Fife, LE and HLE in Fife loosely follows Scotland’s averages, with 76.9 and 63.3 years for males and 81.0 and 65.4 for females respectively.
Males and older age
- Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
- East Dunbartonshire had the highest male LE at birth (80.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest male LE at birth (72.6 years).
- HLE at birth broadly followed the same pattern, with East Dunbartonshire having the highest male HLE (68.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest (55.9 years).
- This means that a boy born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 7.4 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
|LE 95% CIs||HLE 95% CIs|
Females and older age
- Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
- East Dunbartonshire had the highest female LE at birth (83.4 years), and Glasgow City the lowest female LE at birth (78.4 years).
- This means that a girl born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 6.9 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
|LE 95% CIs||HLE 95% CIs||Expected ‘not healthy’ years|
Unplanned Hospital Attendances and Emergency Admissions
Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Unplanned Hospital Attendances rate than the rest of Scotland and this gap is projected to remain constant. Emergency admissions are however increasing.
Early Mortality (under 75)
Fife has consistently had over the past 10 years a lower Early Mortality Rate than the rest of Scotland:
Fife has a higher fragility index than the rest of Scotland, and this has been increasing over the past 10 years:
Hate crime, homicides and sexual/ domestic abuse
The Scottish Household Survey reports on individuals’ experience of discrimination or harassment. For people aged 60+, 4% reported experiencing discrimination and 2% harassment in Fife. This is much lower than the 16-39 age group which increase from 9% in 2016 to 14% in 2017.
|Discrimination %||Harassment %|
Access to services
People are 65+ on average tend to report local services positively and that the local authority provides services designed for needs and does its best with money available. Lower scores are reported for people in the 16-39 and 40-64 age groups however. This compares to the 2016 Scottish Household Survey, with a marked drop in the 65+ age group rating communication positively from 61% to 51%, along with ‘high quality services’ falling from 60% to 50%.
|Good at communicating services||42||44||51||45|
|High quality services||38||48||50||45|
|Good at communicating performance||31||35||46||36|
|Services designed for needs||44||35||56||43|
|Does its best with money available||44||45||55||47|
|Addressing key issues||34||36||49||38|
|Good at listening||26||25||39||28|
|I can influence decisions affecting my local area||30||31||23||29|
|I want greater involvement in decisions||34||40||24||34|
|Good at communicating services||39||42||49||43|
|High quality services||41||38||44||41|
|Good at communicating performance||28||36||42||34|
|Services designed for needs||38||34||40||37|
|Does its best with money available||34||40||48||39|
|Addressing key issues||31||31||37||33|
|Good at listening||23||22||26||24|
|I can influence decisions affecting my local area||24||23||19||23|
|I want greater involvement in decisions||38||35||22||33|
Social and community cohesion
In Fife and Scotland in 2017, the Scottish Household Survey reports a drop across all age groups for people reporting to belong ‘Very Strongly’ to their community. This compares to 2016 when the strength of belonging to community was reported lower in the 16-39 age group and ‘Not Very Strong’ for the 40-59s and 60+ in Fife compared to Scotland as a whole.
|Very strongly||Fairly strongly||Not very strongly||Not all strongly||Don’t know|
Table 92 Strength of feeling of belonging to community by gender, age, ethnicity and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Source: Scottish Household Survey (2017) LA Tables – Annual Report Table 4.17 [01 Nov 2018]
 The column headed lx shows the numbers who would survive to the exact age of x out of 100,000 persons who, from birth, were subject to the mortality probabilities indicated by the death records for 2013-2015.
 Column exo shows the expectation of life, that is, the average number of years of life left to persons aged exactly x who are subject to the 2013-2015 mortality probabilities from age x onwards.
 Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points
 As above
 A&E attendances, as well other hospital attendances should decrease with better provision and use of primary care and community-based services, better preventative and continuous care in the home, and improved self-care. As a measure this indicates a range of outcomes, such as integration of health and social care.
 This relates to European Age Standardised Rate of deaths which is the mortality rate of persons under 75 that would have been found if the population of that area had the same age-composition (proportion of total population in each five year age class) as a hypothetical European population.
 The fragility index combines 3 measures – De-population, Old Age Dependency Ratio (OADR) and Rural depopulation: this considers the proportion of the total population (or might consider the working age population) that are living in rural or rural remote areas. This is an inverse index so that if the rural population proportion is falling, the index increases.