Pregnancy is the condition of being pregnant. Maternity refers to the period after the birth, and is linked to maternity leave in the employment context.

The protected period covers in non-work cases the whole of a woman’s pregnancy as well as 26 weeks following the birth (or stillbirth after more than 24 weeks of pregnancy).

In work cases, the protected period commences when a woman becomes pregnant and ends either two weeks after the end of the pregnancy or, if entitled to ordinary and additional maternity leave, at the end of that period or when she returns to work if that is earlier[1]. Maternity discrimination includes treating a woman unfavourably because she is breastfeeding.

Interesting facts about Pregnancy & Maternity

  • There were 3739 live births reported in Fife between April 2016 and March 2017, of which 1930 were male and 1809 female
  • The majority of births in this period were outwith marriage (55.2%)
  • Fife has a slightly higher birth-rate than Scotland as a whole (10.2 vs 10.1 per 1000)
  • Fife had a rate of teenage pregnancy of 36.5, which was still higher than the national average (32.4) and a marked reduction over a period of 10 years from a high figure of 66.9 in 2007
  • In Fife, this means we can estimate that around 413 mothers lose their jobs every year due to their being pregnant, and up to 376 being discouraged from attending neonatal appointment

Demography

There were 3739 live births reported in Fife between April 2016 and March 2017, of which 1930 were male and 1809 female. The majority were outwith marriage (55.2%).

Live Births
Total Live births Within Marriage Outside Marriage
Both Sexes Males Females Both Sexes Males Females Both Sexes Males Females
3,739 1,930 1,809 1,674 875 799 2,065 1,055 1,010

Source: ISD 2017 – Births in Scottish Hospitals

Fife has a slightly higher birth-rate than Scotland as a whole (10.2 vs 10.1 per 1000). It is also notable that in 2015-2016 the rates of perinatal, neonatal and infant death were noticeably higher than the national average (6.4 vs 3.3 for infant deaths).

Area Live births Stillbirths Maternities
Both sexes Males Females Number Rate
Number Rate
Scotland 54,488 10.1 28,236 26,252 236 4.3 54724
Fife 3,739 10.2 1,930 1,809 19 5.1 3758

 

Area Perinatal deaths Neonatal deaths Infant deaths
Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
SCOTLAND 335 6.1 146 2.7 181 3.3
Fife 34 9.0 20 5.3 24 6.4

Source: NRS: Births, Deaths and Other Vital Events
Preliminary Annual Figures 2016
 

Teenage Pregnancy

For the single year of 2015 in the under 20 age group, East Dunbartonshire had the lowest rate of pregnancies per 1,000 (15.3) while Dundee City had the highest (51.8). Over the three year period 2013-2015, the lowest rate for under 18s was recorded in East Renfrewshire (7.3) while the highest was recorded in Dundee City (41.3)[2].

Fife had a rate of 36.5, which was still higher than the national average (32.4) and a marked reduction over a period of 10 years from a high figure of 66.9 in 2007.

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Scotland 57.6 57.7 54.6 51.3 48.5
Dundee City 81.0 89.0 69.6 66.4 62.5
East Renfrewshire 26.5 32.3 25.9 24.2 22.7
Fife 62.0 66.9 66.8 60.7 59.4

 

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Scotland 43.8 41.7 38.0 34.1 32.4
Dundee City 51.5 51.4 47.1 50.7 51.8
East Renfrewshire 20.7 23.7 19.7 13.5 15.6
Fife 53.2 48.4 48.9 37.0 36.5

Source: ISD (4 July 2017) Teenage Pregnancy
Year of conception ending 31 December 2015 – Table 3

Work

Impact of Pregnancy on Career and Employment

The workplace shows patterns of inequality that are carried over both pregnancy and maternity (and/or paternity) stages. Research carried out in in 2015[3] showed that on average 11% of mothers reported that they were either dismissed; made compulsorily redundant, where others in their workplace were not; or treated so poorly they felt they had to leave their job. 20% said they had experienced harassment or negative comments related to pregnancy or flexible working from their employer and /or colleagues. 10% of mothers said their employer discouraged them from attending antenatal appointments.

In Fife, this means we can expect that around 413 mothers lose their jobs every year due to their being pregnant, and up to 376 being discouraged from attending neonatal appointments:

  Maternities / Year
EHRC / BIS model 2015 Scotland Fife
  Estimated
Incidence
54724 3758
Mothers losing their jobs via dismissal, compulsory redundancy or unfair treatment

 

 

11%

 

6020

 

413

Mothers experiencing harassment or negative comments related to pregnancy or flexible working

 

 

20%

 

10945

 

188

Mothers discouraged from attending neonatal appointments 10% 5472 376

Source: EHRC/BIS model estimates / with NRS population estimates 2017

Attitudes to Maternity / Paternity leave

People hold different views about paid maternity and paternity leave. Across Scotland, 82% agreed that mothers should be entitled to six months paid leave after having a child, just 46% felt that fathers should have an equivalent right[4].

Living Standards

Poverty

Pregnancy is recognised as one of the key triggers increasing the risk of poverty for women and particularly lone parents[5].  Over four in ten (43%) children in single parent families are poor,4 compared to just over two in ten (22%) of children in couple families.

The End Child Poverty coalition of civil organisations and the Centre for Research in Social Policy publish a Child Poverty map of the UK (see here). For the period of October to December 2015, child poverty in Fife was reported at 25% after housing costs which is comparable to the national average[6].

Health

Antenatal Care

The Maternity Care Survey 2015[7] shows that Fife’s overall rating for antenatal care follows that of Scotland’s average (92%) and improved on 2013 by 1%.

However, with only 11% of respondents given a choice about where antenatal check-ups would take place, Fife trails 8% under the national average and highlights another aspect of pregnancy discrimination due to a lack of flexibility in the workplace.

Postnatal Care and Mental Health

Postnatal care is rated in Fife 2% above the national average with 93% of respondents having a positive experience. The most negative responses (23%) relate to referral to advice services on emotional changes experienced after birth. Post-natal depression (PND), with a prevalence of 10-15%[8] this is likely to affect 376 to 568 mothers yearly during the maternity leave stages.

Justice and Personal Security

Sexual/ domestic abuse

Scottish Women’s Aid research from 2012[9] estimates that pregnant women face an “increased risk” of domestic abuse, at 5% to 21% of pre-birth cases and in 13% to 21% of post-birth cases’ and that ‘abuse often starts in pregnancy and gets worse when the first child is new-born’.

[1] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p8

[2] ISD (4 July 2017) Teenage Pregnancy Year of conception ending 31 December 2015

[3] EHRC (2015) Pregnancy and Maternity-related Discrimination and Disadvantage: Experience of Employees. For BIS / IFF research

[4] Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2010: Attitudes to Discrimination and Positive Action.

[5] OPFS Briefing (24 August 2017): Universal Credit: Single Parents – Gender Issues.

[6] End Child Poverty 2016 – POVERTY IN YOUR AREA 2016 Table 2, Fife

[7] Maternal Care Survey 2015. NHS Fife Victoria Hospital Results http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/maternitysurvey

[8] ScotPHO (16 December 2016) Mental health: postnatal depression and puerperal psychosis

[9] Scottish women’s Aid (2012) Everyday Terrorism: How Fear Works in Domestic Abuse, p137