Equality in Fife: Race


Race to a group of people defined by their race, colour, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origins refers[1]. Data used in monitoring tends to be based on Office of National Statistics questions for ethnicity and therefore is often referred to as ‘Ethnicity’.

There are many aspects to race, including ethnic and racial groups – an individual can belong to one or many racial groups, such as British Asians and/or British Sikhs, or British Irish and/or Romany Gypsies / Irish Traveller.

Interesting facts about Race in Fife

  • People in Fife that identified their ethnicity as “White”, reduced from 98.7% in 2001 to 97.6% in 2011.
  • Fifers that said they were “White Scottish” reduced by 3% 88.3% in 2001 to 85.7% in 2011.
  • The ethnic group most likely to live in a one person household were “Caribbean or Black” (44%) compared with the least likely group which was “White Other” (22%).
  • One family households were in highest proportion “White Other British” (66%) and “Mixed or multiple ethnic” had the lowest (49%).
  • One family households families are mostly “White Other British” (50%) and “Caribbean or Black” (36%) were least common.
  • African (17%) and Caribbean or Black (16%) ethnicity showed highest proportions of people living in “lone parent” households
  • People born in Scotland now living in Fife have decreased from 86.2% in 2001 to 83.6% in 2011
  • People born in England but now living in Fife have increased from 9.4% in 2001 to 9.7% in 2011
  • In 2011, Fife had a slightly lower proportion than the national average of people who identify as Irish (0.62% vs 1.02%) and Polish (0.84% vs 1.16%)
  • People born in countries within the European Union that live in Fife account for 2.4% of the Fife population
  • The majority of Fifers born outside the UK have been resident for over 10 years (43.9%) compared to the national average (37.4%)
  • Only 2.9% of Fifers used a language other than English at home.
  • Modern Apprenticeships starts in Fife who self-identified as being from a Mixed or Multiple; Asian; African; Caribbean or Black; and Other ethnic group is 0.6% in Fife

Demography

Ethnicity

The census remains the more detailed source of information on race for citizens in Fife and Scotland. From 2001, the percentage of people in Scotland from minority ethnic groups had doubled from 2% to 4%. The Asian population is the largest minority ethnic group (2.7% or 141,000 people), within which the largest ethnic category is Pakistani, at 1% of the total population. African, Caribbean or Black groups made up close to 1% of the population. Mixed or multiple ethnic groups represented 0.4% (20,000) and other ethnic groups 0.3% (14,000) of the total population.

2011 Census categories % of Total Population % of Minority Ethnic Base
African 0.6 14 30,000
Asian/Asian Scottish/Asian British 2.7 67 141,000
Caribbean or Black 0.1 3 7,000
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups 0.4 9 20,000
Other ethnic group 0.3 7 14,000
White 96.0 n/a 5,084,000
All Minority Ethnic Population 4.0 100 211,000
All Population 100 n/a 5,295,000

Fife has a relatively low proportion of people from minority groups (2.4%), compared to Glasgow City at 12% or the City of Edinburgh and in Aberdeen City where it was at 8%. The new category for the 2011 Census of “White Polish” shows that there are 3058 people that have classified themselves in this category, and now make up 0.8% of the Fife population.

Fife Scotland
% White – Scottish 85.7 84.0
% White – Other British 8.6 7.9
% White – Irish 0.6 1.0
% White – Polish 0.8 1.2
% White – Other 1.9 2.0
% Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 1.6 2.7
% Other ethnic groups 0.8 1.3
(Combined) Minority Ethnic Group 2.4 4.0

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Ethnicity – Fife and Scotland

The more recent statistics from the 2015 Scottish Surveys Core Questions[2] show a similar distribution with 83.4% of Fife’s population ethnicity being ‘White Scottish’ (compared to 78.4% nationally) and consistently lower proportions for other groups. Edinburgh had the lowest proportion of White-Scottish at 60.1% while West Dunbartonshire had the highest at 92.5%.

Responses %
Area White: Scottish White: Other British White: Polish White: Other[3]
(all) Scotland 78.4 ± 0.8 12.4 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 0.4
Edinburgh, City of 60.1 ± 3.4 19.3 ± 2.5 2.9 ± 1.0 10.1 ± 2.1
Fife 83.4 ± 2.6 10.2 ± 2.0 1.0 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 1.5
West Dunbartonshire 92.5 ± 2.7 3.4 ± 1.5 1.3 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.1

 

Responses %
Area Asian[4] All other ethnic groups[5]
(all) Scotland 2.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.2
Edinburgh, City of 4.5 ± 1.5 3.0 ± 1.1
Fife 1.1 ± 0.8 0.7 ± 0.5
West Dunbartonshire 1.2 ± 1.9 0.5 ± 0.5

Source: SSCQ (2015) Data Tables 4.2 Ethnicity 

Ethnicity – Further details

Looking at a further breakdown of census data, Fife has a lower proportion than the national average of people who identify as Irish (0.62% vs 1.02%) and Polish (0.84% vs 1.16%) and this pattern is also present within the white ethnic community in Fife.

  White

Population

 Scottish Other British
Scotland 5,084,407 96.02% 4,445,678 83.95% 417,109 7.88%
Fife 356,550 97.63% 312,957 85.70% 31,464 8.62%
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION
Scotland 4,445,678 87.44% 417,109 8.20%
Fife 312,957 87.77% 31,464 8.82%

 

  Irish Gypsy  / Traveller Polish Other White  
Scotland 54,090 1.02% 4,212 0.08% 61,201 1.16% 102,117 1.93%  
Fife 2,260 0.62% 316 0.09% 3,058 0.84% 6,495 1.78%  
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION
Scotland 54,090 1.06% 4,212 0.08% 61,201 1.20% 102,117 2.01%  
Fife 2,260 0.63% 316 0.09% 3,058 0.86% 6,495 1.82%  

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Ethnic group : Table KS201SC

Fife has a lower proportion than the national average of people who identify as Pakistani (0.52% vs 0.93%), Bangladeshi (0.03% vs 0.07%) Indian (0.29% vs 0.62%), Chinese (0.48% vs 0.64%) and African (0.19% vs 0.55%).

Within the Asian community in Fife, we can see a lower proportion of Indian and Bangladeshi ethnicity and a higher proportion of the Chinese community (30.18% vs 23.96%). Within the African population, there is a higher proportion of ‘Other African’ (2.84% vs 1.5%) while the Caribbean ethnicity directly comparable to national distribution at 0.06%.

   

Asian Ethnicity

Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British
Scotland 140,678 2.66% 49,381 0.93% 32,706 0.62%  
Fife 5,748 1.57% 1,902 0.52% 1,066 0.29%  
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION  
Scotland     49,381 35.10% 32,706 23.25%  
Fife     1,902 33.09% 1,066 18.55%  

 

  Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British Other Asian  
Scotland 3,788 0.07% 33,706 0.64% 21,097 0.40%
Fife 118 0.03% 1,735 0.48% 927 0.25%
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION
Scotland     33,706 23.96% 21,097 15.00%
Fife     1,735 30.18% 927 16.13%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Table KS201SC – Ethnic group

  African Ethnicity African, African Scottish or African British Other African
Scotland 29,638 0.56% 29,186 0.55% 452 0.01%
Fife 704 0.19% 684 0.19% 20 0.01%
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION
Scotland     29,186 98.47% 452 1.53%
Fife     684 97.16% 20 2.84%

 

  Caribbean Ethnicity Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British Black, Black Scottish or Black British Other Caribbean or Black
Scotland 6,540 0.12% 3,430 0.06% 2,380 0.04% 730 0.01%
Fife 422 0.12% 234 0.06% 141 0.04% 47 0.01%
WITHIN FIFE ETHNIC POPULATION
Scotland     3,430 52.45% 2,380 36.39% 730 11.16%
Fife     234 55.45% 141 33.41% 47 11.14%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Table KS201SC – Ethnic group

Most ethnic groups are evenly distributed in terms of age profile and sex, with the exception of more females (39%) than males (28%) in the 20-24 age group of people of the “Asian: Bangladeshi” ethnicity. and in the age group of 0-4, females account for 20% while males account for only 3% (see further details in Fife Council Information and Statistics on Equality Groups in Fife 2016 (Feb 2017) report[6]).

Ethnicity Asian Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British Other Asian
Fife 5748 1902 1066 118 1735 927
Males 2813 999 576 72 777 389
Females 2935 903 490 46 958 538

 

Ethnicity African African, African Scottish or African British Other African Caribbean or Black Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British Black, Black Scottish or Black British Other Caribbean or Black
Fife 704 684 20 422 234 141 47
Males 350 339 11 228 128 79 21
Females 354 345 9 194 106 62 26

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Table KS201SC – Ethnic group

Asylum Seekers

The Home Office releases quarterly official figures for asylum seekers and refugees for the whole UK[7]. In Scotland by September 2017, 3,548 asylum seekers were supported under section 95 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, the majority of which in the Glasgow and surrounding area. The British Red Cross in Scotland report to the EHRiC (2017)[8] describes the number of destitute refugees and asylum seekers as having increased from 326 in 2014 to 820 in 2016.

As of September 2017, Fife has no asylum seekers living in dispersed accommodation, 5 supported under Section 95 and 5 in receipt of subsistence only:

Quarter Area Total supported under Section 95 In receipt of subsistence
only
In dispersed accommodation
2014 Q4 UK 29,753 3,403 26,350
2014 Q4 Scotland 2,825 53 2,772
2014 Q4 Fife 1 1 0
2015 Q1 UK 30,476 3,473 27,003
2015 Q1 Scotland 2,626 62 2,564
2015 Q1 Fife 2 2 0
2015 Q2 UK 30,457 3,473 26,984
2015 Q2 Scotland 2,649 77 2,572
2015 Q2 Fife 2 2 0
Quarter Area Total supported under Section 95 In receipt of subsistence
only
In dispersed accommodation
2015 Q3 UK 31,896 3,276 28,620
2015 Q3 Scotland 2,814 69 2,745
2015 Q3 Fife 2 2 0
2015 Q4 UK 34,363 2,931 31,432
2015 Q4 Scotland 3,130 58 3,072
2015 Q4 Fife 2 2 0
2016 Q1 UK 35,683 2,748 32,935
2016 Q1 Scotland 3,214 57 3,157
2016 Q1 Fife 2 2 0
2016 Q2 UK 37,030 2,663 34,367
2016 Q2 Scotland 3,209 52 3,157
2016 Q2 Fife 2 2 0
2016 Q3 UK 37,958 2,704 35,254
2016 Q3 Scotland 3,245 65 3,180
2016 Q3 Fife 2 2 0
2016 Q4 UK 39,389 2,763 36,626
2016 Q4 Scotland 3,350 64 3,286
2016 Q4 Fife 1 1 0
2017 Q1 UK 39,365 2,861 36,504
2017 Q1 Scotland 3,555 70 3,485
2017 Q1 Fife 5 5 0
2017 Q2 UK 38,954 2,827 36,127
2017 Q2 Scotland 3,649 66 3,583
2017 Q2 Fife 5 5 0
2017 Q3 UK 39,414 2,904 36,510
2017 Q3 Scotland 3,548 72 3,476
2017 Q3 Fife 5 5 0

Source: Home Office – Immigration statistics, July to September 2017

Asylum data tables immigration statistics Volume 4 q16
– Asylum seekers in receipt of Section 95 support

Refugees

Fife has a tracked history of welcoming and supporting refugees. Over the last 30 years, people from countries including Afghanistan, Uganda and Kosovo have sought refuge status and gained asylum in Fife. Responding to the Syrian crisis, Fife Council has confirmed that the Kingdom will welcome Syrian refugees. For more information visit the Fife Council Supporting Refugees – Crisis in Syria webpage by clicking here.

Following the Syrian crisis, it is expected to welcome around 140 people to Fife over the next four years. Home Office figures show that between Q4 2015 and Q3 2017, 77 persons registered under the Vulnerable Persons Resettlement Scheme[9], with the highest number recorded in Q1 2017 (23).

  Total UK Total Scotland Fife
2015 Q4

 

1,085 396 13
2016 Q1

 

517 217 5
2016 Q2

 

1,044 249 1
2016 Q3

 

1,516 285 21
2016 Q4

 

1,292 148 1
2017 Q1

 

1,601 366 23
2017 Q2

 

1,228 146 8
2017 Q3

 

859 70 5

Source: Home Office – Immigration statistics, July to September 2017

Asylum data tables immigration statistics Volume 4 q20
Refugees (and others) resettled under the Vulnerable Persons Resettlement scheme

National Identity

In terms distribution in national identity, Fife follows Scotland’s profile closely, with 63.8% of Fifers identifying only with a Scottish identity (compared to 62.4% nationally):

Fife Scotland
% Scottish identity only 63.8 62.4
% British identity only 7.9 8.4
% Scottish and British identities only 18.2 18.3
% Scottish and any other identities 1.8 1.9
% English identity only 2.6 2.3
% Any other combination of UK identities (UK only) 2.2 2.0
% Other identity 3.2 4.4
% Other identity and at least one UK identity 0.3 0.3

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 National identity – Fife and Scotland 

This is similar for Fifer’s countries of birth, however there is a slightly higher proportion of residents from England (9.7% vs 8.7%) and a slightly lower proportion from other countries (3.2% vs 4%).

Fife Scotland
% Scotland 83.6 83.3
% England 9.7 8.7
% Wales 0.4 0.3
% Northern Ireland 0.6 0.7
% Republic of Ireland 0.3 0.4
% Other EU countries (inc UK part not specified) 2.2 2.6
% Other countries 3.2 4.0

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Country of birth – Fife and Scotland 

The majority of Fifers born outside the UK have been resident for over 10 years (43.9%) compared to the national average (37.4%); while those that have been for less 2 years is also lower (20.9% vs 22.1%) suggesting a more settled minority ethnic population than a transient one.

  Fife Scotland
All people born outside the UK 20693 369284
% Resident in UK for less than 2 years 20.9 22.1
% Resident in UK for 2 years or more but less than 5 years 20.4 21.7
% Resident in UK for 5 years or more but less than 10 years 14.8 18.8
% Resident in UK for 10 years or more 43.9 37.4

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Length of residence in UK – Fife and Scotland 

Language

A higher proportion of Fifers are able to speak Scots (34.9% vs 30.1), and a lower proportion is able to speak Gaelic (0.4% vs 1.1%). Only 2.9% of Fifers used a language other than English at home.

All people aged 3 and over Fife Scotland
% Speaks English well or very well 98.9 98.6
% Does not speak English well 1.0 1.2
% Does not speak English at all 0.2 0.2
% Able to speak Gaelic 0.4 1.1
% Able to speak Scots 34.9 30.1
% Uses a language other than English at home 2.9 3.9

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Language – Fife and Scotland

Education

Pupil Ethnicity

Diversity of pupils tends to be highest in primary, decreases in secondary and is low special schools locally and nationally. The Pupil Census shows a higher proportion of ethnic minority pupils in schools than would be expected from the ethnic minority share of the population at large this is mainly explained by the younger age profile of the ethnic minority population, and with this a higher proportion of households with dependent age children.

Fife’s pupil ethnic mix tends to be less diverse by close to half of national average across primary, secondary and special schools. Glasgow is consistently the most diverse (with 22.6% minority ethnic / 6.4% ‘white other’ in primary schools) and Orkney the least (1.5%/5.6% respectively):

Count Percentage
Minority ethnic[10] White other[11] Not known Minority ethnic White other Not known  
PRIMARY
Fife 1,196 1,316 716 4.1 4.5 2.5  
Glasgow City 9,179 2,616 2,019 22.6 6.4 5.0  
Orkney Islands 24 88 41   1.5 5.6 2.6  
All local authorities 30,287 22,482 8,941 7.6 5.7 2.3  
Grant aided 32 9 * 7.0 2.0 *  
SECONDARY
Fife 682 619 215   3.4 3.1 1.1  
Glasgow City 4,662 1,320 622   18.6 5.3 2.5  
Orkney Islands 15 31 10   1.3 2.8 0.9  
All local authorities 16,911 11,498 2,847   6.0 4.1 1.0  
Grant aided 60 16 10   10.4 2.8 1.7  
SPECIAL SCHOOLS
Fife 133 6 * 7 4.5 * 5.3  
Glasgow City 1,329 276 57 40 20.8 4.3 3.0  
All local authorities 6,528 616 302 137 9.4 4.6 2.1  

Source: Pupil census 2016 supplementary data
Tables 6.13,
 7.9, 8.10 – Ethnicity by local authority, 2016[12]

The pupil census for the period 2015-2016 shows that 6 young people attending school were from asylum seeker families and that 13 were from refugees: 

2015 2016
Asylum seeker Refugee Asylum seeker Refugee
Fife * 9 6 13
Glasgow City 600 1,485 715 1,543
Shetland Islands 0 0 0 0
All local authorities 721 1,803 882 2,165

 Source: Pupil census 2016 supplementary data 2016 Table 5.6 Asylum seekers and refugees in publicly funded schools, by local authority, 2015-2016

Note: does not include grant aided special schools

Pupil Attainment

In terms of achievement, minority ethnic groups tend to have high levels of education, with attainment being consistently high for Asian-Chinese pupils with 91.8% achieving SCQF6 or higher, with the ethnic group of those with lowest attainment (55.7% with 1 or more SCQF6) not being disclosed. 61.1% of White-Scottish students had the highest attainment, just below the national average of 61.7%.

2014/15 2015/16
  1 or more
at SCQF
level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF level 6 or better 1 or more
at SCQF
level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF level 6 or better
White – Scottish 96.3 85.0 59.8 96.3 85.4 61.1
White – non-Scottish 94.7 84.2 58.7 96.1 85.6 62.3
White – UK n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
White – Other n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 96.5 89.5 68.0 96.4 88.9 72.2
Asian – Indian 98.6 92.1 71.6 98.7 94.2 76.5
Asian – Pakistani 97.9 89.7 71.1 99.0 92.1 73.2
Asian – Chinese 99.4 95.4 88.0 99.5 96.4 91.8
Asian – Other 96.6 90.9 77.7 97.8 92.2 76.9
African/ Black/ Caribbean2 98.9 93.8 74.6 99.7 95.4 76.6
All other categories3 96.3 85.1 62.1 94.3 82.9 61.7
Not Disclosed/Not known 93.0 81.5 53.2 93.6 79.9 55.7
All Leavers 96.2 85.2 60.2 96.3 85.6 61.7

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations, supplementary data (2017) –
Table 6 – % of school leavers by attainment at SCQF 4 to 6

Gypsy and Traveller attainment

Educational attainment of Gypsy/Traveller children and young people is not apparent in the figures as it may sometimes be recorded across the ‘White Other/UK/non-Scottish’, Mixed, or Not Disclosed/Not known. However, it is well-known that Gypsy/Travellers were less likely to be full-time students than the general population aged 16-24. 38% of Gypsy/Travellers were full-time students compared to 46% of the population in this age group[13]. 50% of Gypsy/Travellers aged 16 and over had no qualifications compared to 27% of the population as a whole. 

Source: Gypsy/Travellers in Scotland – A Comprehensive Analysis of the 2011 Census
Chart 28: Gypsy/Travellers by Highest Level of Qualification – people aged 16 and over
 

Teacher Ethnicity

Ethnicity profiles of education staff are here as a fair and proportionate representation in the key areas of public life such as education is crucial in shaping norms and the future of community cohesion and safety in Scotland[14]. There is also increasing evidence of a need for greater diversity of people taking STEM courses and training programmes and employed in the STEM sectors and covers gender equality as well as race and disability among other disparities[15].

The 2016 Teacher census reports Fife as having a higher proportion of White-Scottish and a lower proportion of White-other teachers across primary, secondary and special schools, which is consistent with Fife overall ethnic profile.

White-Scottish White-other British White-other Ethnic minority Not disclosed
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number
PRIMARY
Fife 1,519 87 203 12 21 1 10 1 28
Glasgow City 1,722 85 196 10 37 2 63 3 383
Scottish Borders 131 29 320 70 8 2 0 0 4
All local authorities 15,692 69 6,374 28 489 2 229 1 1,116
SECONDARY
Fife 1,147 77 252 17 66 4 19 1 86
Glasgow City 1,440 82 180 10 46 3 84 5 224
Scottish Borders 127 28 306 67 22 5 5 1 12
All local authorities 13,394 62 7,195 33 756 3 378 2 1,182
SPECIAL SCHOOLS
Fife 56 83 9 13 * 3 * 1 *
Glasgow City 264 85 26 8 11 3 12 4 25
All local authorities 1,177 68 443 26 79 5 32 2 84

Source: Teacher census 2016, supplementary data –Table 7.8, 8.8 and 9.7

The Fife College race / ethnicity profile for 2015-2016 was 95% of staff with a race or ethnicity declared as White, rising to 97% by the end of 2015-16. This may be due to a number of staff not declaring a race or ethnicity or have indicated they would prefer not to say being at 2.6% [16].

Exclusion Rates

The EHRC Race Report[17] show that across the UK Black Caribbean and Mixed White/Black Caribbean children tend to have rates of permanent exclusion about three times that of the pupil population as a whole.

This trend is not replicated in Scotland with the rate per 1000 pupil being lower (23.3) than the average (27.2). The White Scottish ethnicity has a slightly above average (28.9) rate, but it is important to note that a lot of cases were not known/not disclosed. There is no further Fife specific area data at this time:

Total exclusions Of which, removals Pupils excluded Total pupil numbers Rates per 1,000 pupils
Total 18,430 5 10,428 676,751 27.2 15.4
White – Scottish 16,351 5 9,188 566,301 28.9 16.2
White – non-Scottish 1,069 623 57,240 18.7 10.9
Mixed 144 86 7,535 19.1 11.4
Asian 217 151 24,344 8.9 6.2
African / Black / Caribbean 144 100 6,193 23.3 16.1
Other 93 43 3,868 24.0 11.1
Not known/not disclosed 308 170 11,270 27.3 15.1

Source: Exclusions dataset 2014/15 (22 Feb 2016)

Table 10: Cases of exclusion by ethnic background of pupils, 2014/15

Higher education

Across Scotland, there has been a marked increase in Asian-Bangladeshi entrants into Higher Education (+85.4%), followed by entrants from the Black-Other ethnicity (19.4%) and Asian-Indian (+17.8%). However the bulk of known minority ethnic HEI students are Asian-Chinese (4250 in 2015-2016). It is to note that for 13140 entrants the ethnicity was “unknown” making precise equality data monitoring problematic.

Ethnic Background 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change
since
2014-15
% change
since
2006-07
All ethnic backgrounds 135,365 133,660 135,090 1.1% -5.2%
Asian – Bangladeshi 190 205 380 85.4% 117.1%
Asian – Chinese 3,795 4,160 4,250 2.2% 65.0%
Asian – Indian 1,560 1,690 1,990 17.8% -27.6%
Asian – Pakistani 1,615 1,705 1,825 7.0% 15.1%
Asian – other 1,495 1,555 1,655 6.4% 32.9%
Black – African 2,400 2,420 2,360 -2.5% 34.5%
Black – Caribbean 155 150 155 3.3% 10.7%
Black – other 220 180 215 19.4% -51.1%
White 106,850 105,095 105,685 0.6% -8.8%
Mixed background 1,790 1,925 1,930 0.3% 73.9%
Other ethnic background 1,455 1,485 1,500 1.0% 80.7%
Unknown 13,840 13,085 13,140 0.4% -6.2%

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015-16

Table 27: Entrants to higher education at Scottish HEIs and colleges by ethnicity 

Fife College shows a lower proportion of reported White ethnicity than Scotland (78.23% vs 90.51%) but 18.3% of students’ ethnicity data was not known or refused, this might not be significant. Where reported, there is a lower proportion across all ethnic groups of students than the national average.

OVERALL White Other Indian Pakistani
Fife College 16,522 12,925 78.23% 154 0.93% 35 0.21% 73
Scotland 222,961 201,808 90.51% 3,802 1.71% 1,320 0.59% 2,341

 

Bangla-
deshi
Chinese Black Caribbean Black African
Fife College 5 0.03% 24 0.15% 5 0.03% 69 0.42%
Scotland 215 0.10% 1,139 0.51% 195 0.09% 3,540 1.59%

 

Black Other   Arab Info Refused Info Unknown
Fife College 12 0.07% 26 0.16% 168 1.02% 3,026 18.31%
Scotland 386 0.17% 899 0.40% 792 0.36% 3,928 1.76%

Source: InFact Database Analysis of Further Education Awards for year 2015-16
Number of Students by Ethnicity
 

Modern Apprenticeships (MA)

Ethnic minorities tend to have low representation in MA programmes[18], although diversity has been increasing at national level. MA starts self-declared as being from an ethnic minority group rose from 1.5% in December 2015 to 1.7% in December 2016[19], from an estimated population in Scotland of 6.4%.

In Fife, MA starts who self-identify being from a Mixed or Multiple; Asian; African; Caribbean or Black; and Other ethnic group is 0.6%, a noticeably lower than the estimated population of 2.4%.

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

Work

Labour Statistics

Employment rate statistics for ethnic minorities in the Mid Scotland and Fife region show a fall of -13% in the period 2015 to 2016 which was the highest change across Scotland, the Highlands and Islands had a change of +26.6% in the same period, while nationally the rate change was of -1.3%.

Geography
(Residence Based)
2015 2016 Change over year Change since 2008
Rate Level Rate Level Rate % Level Rate % Level
Scotland 58.9% 84,600 57.6% 98,100 -1.3 13,500 -3.2 38,100
Region Area
Ayrshire * * * *
Edinburgh and Lothians 57.5% 16,200 63.6% 24,200 6.1 8,000 -0.6 10,100
Glasgow City 52.3% 27,000 46.7% 25,200 -5.6 -1,800 -3.3 7,200
Highlands and Islands 46.8% 1,500 73.3% 3,100 26.6 1,600 11.8 1,400
Lanarkshire 65.8% 7,400 75.1% 8,600 9.3 1,200 5.0 4,800
Mid Scotland and Fife 69.6% 8,100 56.6% 7,900 -13.0 -200 -18.4 3,500
South Scotland * * * *
The North East 63.2% 13,600 54.0% 15,000 -9.2 1,400 -9.7 4,300
West Scotland 64.0% 7,800 69.3% 11,400 5.3 3,700 0.5 6,300

Source: Labour Market – Local Authority Tables 2016
Table 1.6: Employment rates and levels for ethnic minorities by region, Scotland

Workplace culture and barriers

The Business in the Community / YouGov Race at Work 2015 report and derived research[20] give a detailed breakdown of barriers in career progression faced by minority ethnic groups in the workplace across the UK. While on average across all employees, one in five people are unhappy or frustrated with career progression, this is reported as high as 49% and 47% of people from Other Asian and Other Black backgrounds.

Source: Race at Work 2015 – Key findings Slide 13

Employment rate

In 2016 in Scotland the employment rate for people from minority ethnic groups decreased by 1.3 percentage points over the year, from 58.9% to 57.6%[21]. There is no further breakdown at Fife level available at this time.

From a ONS FOI request in 2016[22], if was shown that at national level, ethnic minority groups have a lower employment rate that white ethnic groups (59.2% vs 73.5%) and that the 16+ unemployment rate is slightly higher (8.7% vs 5.6%). There is a marked gender pattern with 71% of white females employed, compared to 44.4% of ethnic minority females:

Aged 16-64 employment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 2,377,100 3,233,200 73.5 0.9
ethnic minority 92,300 156,000 59.2 6.0
white males 1,205,900 1,582,800 76.2 1.3
ethnic minority males 55,400 72,800 76.1 7.7
white females 1,171,200 1,650,300 71.0 1.3
ethnic minority females 36,900 83,300 44.4 8.2

 

16+ unemployment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 144,400 2,600,700 5.6 0.5
ethnic minority 8,900 102,200 8.7 4.1
white males 86,000 1,340,600 6.4 0.8
ethnic minority males 2,700 58,400 4.6 4.1
white females 58,400 1,260,000 4.6 0.7
ethnic minority females 6,200 43,800 14.2 7.6

 

Aged 16-64 who are economically inactive numerator denominator % conf
white 713,000 3,233,200 22.1 0.9
ethnic minority 54,800 156,000 35.1 5.8
white males 291,700 1,582,800 18.4 1.2
ethnic minority males 14,700 72,800 20.2 7.2
white females 421,300 1,650,300 25.5 1.3
ethnic minority females 40,100 83,300 48.2 8.2

Source: ONS (2016) FOI – Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

Analysis of the 2011 Census showed that in Scotland, Polish people had the highest rates of work at 81% while Gypsy/Travellers, Arab and Chinese people were the least likely to be in work (noting that those groups include high proportions of students). African people were most likely to be unemployed (15%), followed by Caribbean or Black people (11%) and Gypsy/Travellers (9%)[23]. Further differences in employment based on people’s religion intersect with race and are enduring – for instance BME Muslims in the UK tend to experience the worst outcomes in terms of career development[24].

Forced labour and trafficking

Race is crucial determinant in modern slavery and trafficking. Potential victims of human trafficking in Scotland numbered up to 150 in 2016, an increase of 3.4% on the previous year. The majority of referrals were from Vietnam (51), China (30) and Albania (13)[25]. The number of referrals were equally divided between males and females but highly gendered with 36 females vs 3 males claiming sexual exploitation and, 16 females vs 60 males claiming labour exploitation:

Source: National Crime Agency (7 April 2017) National Referral Mechanism Statistics – End of Year Summary 2016

Living Standards

Poverty

Data for Scotland shows that people from minority ethnic groups are more likely to be in poverty, both before (30% vs 15%) and after housing costs (35% vs 18%), compared to those from the ‘White – British’ group for combined data from 2013/14 to 2015/16[26].

Source: Scottish Government (9 Jun 2017) Poverty equality analysis

There is no further breakdown of poverty in relation to ethnicity available at local level, however the ONS 2016 FOI on employment rates[27] can provide an alternative appraisal of barriers to economic faced by those groups.

Housing

The 2011 census reported that 9% of households in Scotland were overcrowded, this included 30% of White Polish households, 28% of Bangladeshi or African households, 25% of Pakistani households, and 24% of Gypsy/Travellers households[28].

The 2015 SSCQ survey reported that people who live in social rented accommodation are more likely to identify as being of ‘White Scottish’ ethnicity than the national average (84.6% vs 78.4%). People who identify as ‘Other British’ are noticeably less likely to live in social rented accommodation (6.7%), when taking into consideration they represent 12.4% of the overall population.

People in the private rented sector are more likely to identify as ‘White other British’, ‘White Polish’, ‘White other’ or ‘Asian’ than the population as a whole.

 

Responses %
White: Scottish White: Other British White: Polish White: Other  
Scotland 78.4 ± 0.8 12.4 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 0.4  
Fife 83.4 ± 2.6 10.2 ± 2.0 1.0 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 1.5  
Detailed Tenure                  
Owned outright 81.2 ± 1.2 15.1 ± 1.1 0.1 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.5  
Mortgaged 80.7 ± 1.3 12.2 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.5  
Social rented 84.6 ± 1.4 6.7 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.7 2.6 ± 0.6  
Private rented 58.4 ± 2.6 15.4 ± 1.8 4.7 ± 1.2 11.8 ± 1.7  

 

Responses %
Asian All other ethnic group
Scotland 2.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.2
Fife 1.1 ± 0.8 0.7 ± 0.5
Detailed Tenure
Owned outright 1.3 ± 0.4 0.3 ± 0.2
Mortgaged 2.3 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.4
Social rented 1.6 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.5
Private rented 5.7 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.0

Source: SSCQ (2015) Data Tables 4.2 Ethnicity

The 2016 Scottish Household Survey shows that In Fife, 98% of the people privately renting are of the White ethnicity, compared to 90% nationally. 2% of people of in social accommodation are Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British, 1% are from other ethnic groups.

Owner Occupier Social sector Private rent Other All
Fife 2016
White 99 96 98 * 99
Any Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Groups *
Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 0 2 * 1
African *
Caribbean or Black 1 * 0
Other Ethnic Group 0 1 * 0
Don’t know *
Refused 1 * 0
All 100 100 100 100 100
Base 310 100 70 0 480

 

Owner Occupier Social sector Private rent Other All
Scotland 2016
White 98 98 90 89 97
Any Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Groups 0 0 1 2 0
Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 1 1 6 2 2
African 0 1 1 6 1
Caribbean or Black 0 0 0
Other Ethnic Group 0 1 2 2 1
Don’t know 0 0
Refused 0 0 0
All 100 100 100 100 100
Base 6,050 2,200 1,270 120 9,640

Source: Scottish Household Survey – Annual Report 2016, LA Tables 3: Housing 

Homelessness

Across Scotland, the proportion of applications under the Homeless Persons legislation what were from the White Scottish ethnicity has been decreasing, being at 77.7% in the 2016-2017 period. The White Other British ethnic group is the main other group, rising to 6.3%. 4.2% of applicants’ ethnicity was unknown or refused to answer.

Household type 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
A: White: Scottish 80.2% 78.8% 78.4% 77.7%
A: White: Other British 5.5% 5.6% 5.7% 6.3%
A: White: Irish 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4%
A: White: Other 3.8% 3.1% 2.8% 2.6%
White: Polish 1.4% 1.7% 1.9% 1.7%
D: African 1.1% 1.0% 1.3% 1.3%
E: Caribbean or Black 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.5%
C: Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.3%
B: Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2%
F: Other ethnic group 2.4% 3.9% 4.2% 3.8%
G: Not known or Refused 3.2% 3.5% 3.7% 4.2%

Source: Scottish Household Survey – Annual Report 2016
LA Tables 8b: Ethnicity of all main applicants, proportions

Health

Minority ethnic groups tend to record a lower proportion of people with a health problem or disability than the national figure (20%). For people who identified as White Gypsy/Traveller, 16% were limited a lot and 10% were limited a little due a long-term health condition or disability. Only 5% of people who identified as White Polish reported a health problem or disability, however it is worth considering that this group is of a younger age profile.

Limited a lot Limited a little Not limited
All 10% 10% 80%
White: Scottish 10% 10% 79%
White: Other British 8% 11% 81%
White: Irish 10% 10% 80%
White: Gypsy/Traveller 16% 12% 72%
White: Polish 2% 3% 95%
White: Other 3% 5% 91%
Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 4% 5% 91%

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census

Chart 1.30: Ethnic Group by Long-term Health Problem

Limited a lot Limited a little Not limited
All 10% 10% 80%
Pakistani 7% 8% 86%
Indian 3% 4% 92%
Bangladeshi 5% 6% 89%
Chinese 2% 4% 94%
Other Asian 2% 4% 93%
African 2% 4% 94%
Caribbean or Black 6% 6% 88%
Arab 3% 5% 91%
Other Ethnic Group 5% 7% 89%

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census

Chart 1.30: Ethnic Group by Long-term Health Problem

Justice and Personal Security

Hate crime

Racial crime has been and remains the most commonly reported hate crime in Scotland. In 2016-2017 there were 3,349 charges reported in 2016-17. This continues the downward trend since a peak in charges reported in 2011-12.

Source: COPFS (2017) Hate Crime in Scotland 2016-2017

There has been an increase in the proportion of charges relating to other offences (e.g. threatening / abusive behaviour, assault) with a racial aggravation[29].  Court proceedings were commenced in respect of 83% of charges in 2016-17, no action was taken in respect of 4% of charges.

Year 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17
Total number of charges of race crimes 4178 4547 4034 4160 3820 3723 3349
Of which
  Charges related to racially aggravated harassment and behaviour 62% 61% 59% 55% 52% 47% 44%
Charges related to another offence with a racial aggravation 38% 39% 41% 45% 48% 53% 56%
Decision on how charge will proceed
  Court proceedings 84% 82% 83% 87% 86% 86% 83%
Not separately prosecuted 9% 8% 9% 6% 7% 7% 8%
Direct measures 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3%
Referred to Children’s Reporter 1% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 1%
No action 5% 7% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4%
Awaiting decision 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%

Source: COPFS (2017) Hate Crime in Scotland 2016-2017 p7

Comparing categories of hate crime, in 2015-2016, 761 people were convicted with Racial aggravations across Scotland, a change of +8%, which compares to +70% in disability and +15% in Sexual Orientation aggravations. There is no further local breakdown at this time:

2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change 2014-15 to 2015-16
All aggravators 10,040 10,481 12,294 13,751 13,823 1%
Domestic 8,877 9,292 11,077 12,440 12,374 -1%
Racial 626 696 699 702 761 8%
Religious 370 272 256 241 245 2%
Sexual orientation 155 194 227 320 368 15%
Disability 9 21 30 40 68 70%
Transgender 3 6 5 8 7 -13%

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015-16

Table 12: People convicted with an aggravator recorded against the main charge

Detention and Conditions of detention

Scotland Census 2011 shows similar ethnicity distribution in prisons as among the general population, with a slight variation in Asian or Black ethnicities. In 2011, 2.5% of the general population was from an Asian ethnicity and 1.7% of the prison population were reported as Asian. Black ethnicities accounted for 0.6% of the general population and 1.4% of the prison population.

Source: UK Prison Population Statistics
Parliament UK Number SN/SG/04334, 20 April 2017

Forced Marriages

In Scotland, the Forced Marriage etc (Protection and Jurisdiction) (Scotland) Act 2011 came into force on 28 November 2011 and provides civil protection in the form of Forced Marriage Protection Orders (FMPO) for those at risk of forced marriage as well as those already in forced marriages. Breaching a FMPO is a criminal offence in Scotland, under section 122 of the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 (which will be referred to, for brevity, as ‘the 2014 Act’), and came into force on 30th September 2014.

By January 2017 12 FMPOs have been issued in Scotland[30], no further breakdown of data at local level was available at this time, however the research carried between 2011 and 2014 based on 191 cases of forced marriage can help draw some conclusions.

Cases in that period tended to involve young, female South Asian victims being threatened or coerced into marriage largely by their parents and extended families. The areas survey did not include Fife but incidence locally can be expected to lie be between Edinburgh’s (with the highest proportion of cases at 39%) and Dundee (2%) due to proximity and size of population.

  2011 2012 2013 2014 Total*
Aberdeen City 4 (10%) 4 (10%) 4 (8%) 5 (9%) 17 (9%)
Dundee 2 (5%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 3 (2%)
East Renfrewshire 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Edinburgh 16 (38%) 17 (41%) 25 (48%) 17 (4%) 75 (39%)
Glasgow City 17 (40%) 20 (49%) 17 (33%) 18 (32%) 72 (38%)
Highlands 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
National sample 3 (7%) 0 (0%) 6 (12%) 15 (27%) 24 (13%)
Total* 42 (100%) 41 (100%) 52 (100%) 56 (100%) 191 (100%)

Source: Scottish Government (2017) Understanding forced marriage in Scotland Table 2: Cases reported by study year and area

Of the cases where age was known, the majority of victims were aged 18-25, with under 18s representing around a quarter of cases and under 16s around 1 in 10 of cases. Victims were mainly from Pakistani backgrounds (more than half of cases where ethnicity was known), followed by ‘other ethnicity’, Indian and Black African.

Ethnicity White Black African Black Carib-bean Other Black Pakistani Bangladeshi Indian Other Asian Mixed race Other
Count /

(%)

4 (3%) 11 (8%) 0

(0%)

0 (0%) 79 (

55%)

7

(5%)

13 (9%) 8 (6%) 1 (1%) 20 (14%)

 

Age group Under 16 16-17 years 18-21 years 22-25 years 26-30 years 31+ years
(%) 14

(11%)

18

(14%)

36

(27%)

38

(29%)

19

(14%)

8

(6%)

Source: Scottish Government (2017) Understanding forced marriage in Scotland
Table 3:
Victim demographics

Participation

Political and civic participation and representation

In the UK in 2017, 8% of members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords are from an ethnic minority background. This compares with 13.6% of UK population. The share of non-white population is the most proportionally represented in the Civil Service (11.6%), with the NHS at the largest share of ethnic minority staff (18%)[31].

Across Scotland, the proportion of applications to Public Appointments from people who declared they were from a minority ethnic background in 2016 was slightly higher than in the preceding years at 5.5%, this has increased yearly from a figure of 3.5% in 2012.

The proportion of those appointed who belong to the minority ethnic groups fell from 5.2% in 2015 to 1.0% in 2016, there is no further local breakdown available at this time (Public Appointments in Scotland 2016 Diversity Analysis Report – March 2017).

Social and community cohesion

There is not enough data to determine strength of feeling of belonging to community for each ethnicity in Fife at this time (SHS 2016) but national figures are available. 21% people from minority ethnic groups rate ‘Very Strongly’ the strength of belonging community, compared to 35% overall. With 43% of this group rating belonging as ‘Fairly Strongly’, this is consistent with the overall population profile, however 25% of minority ethnic groups rate this as ‘Not Very Strongly’, which is significantly higher than the national average of 16%.

Very strongly Fairly strongly Not very strongly Not all strongly Don’t know
Fife 2016
Gender
Male 38 37 19 5 0
Female 30 43 18 7 1
Ethnicity
White 35 40 18 6 1
Minority ethnic groups * *
All 34 40 18 6 1
Scotland 2016
Gender
Male 33 43 18 6 1
Female 37 42 15 5 1
Ethnicity
White 35 42 16 5 1
Minority ethnic groups 21 43 25 7 4
All 35 42 16 5 1

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2016) 2016 LA Tables

Table 4.17: Strength of feeling of belonging to community

[1]  EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p8

[2] Scottish Government SSCQ (2015) http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/About/Surveys/SSCQ/SSCQ2015

[3] ‘White: Other’ includes ‘White: Irish’, ‘White: Gypsy/Traveller’ and ‘White: Other White Ethnic Group’

[4] ‘Asian’ includes the categories Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British

[5] ‘All other ethnic groups’ includes categories within the ‘Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Group’, ‘African’, ‘Caribbean or Black’, and ‘Other Ethnic Group’ sections

[6] Fife Council Information and Statistics on Equality Groups in Fife 2016

[7] Home Office – Immigration statistics quarterly release

[8] EHRiC (2017) Hidden Lives – New Beginnings: Destitution, asylum and insecure immigration status in Scotland, 3rd Report (Session 5)

[9] Home Office (2017) VPRS

[10] Percentage of those with known background. Minority ethnic group includes all categories other than White-Scottish, White Other British and White-Other

[11] White-Other includes White-Gypsy/Traveller, White-Other, White Polish and White-Irish

[12] Ethnic background categories are based on those collected in the 2011 population census

[13] Gypsy/Travellers in Scotland – A Comprehensive Analysis of the 2011 Census

[14] Scottish Government (2017) Race Equality Framework – Sections 3 & 4

[15] Scottish Government (2017) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – Education and Training Strategy for Scotland

[16] Fife College Mainstreaming report (April 2017) p12

[17] EHRC (18 August 2016) Healing a divided Britain. https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/race-report-healing-divided-britain

[18] Equal Opportunities Committee Removing Barriers: race, ethnicity and employment. EHRiC (28th January 2016) SP Paper 890 1st Report, 2016 (Session 4)

[19] SDS (18 July 2017) Equality action plan – Year 1 update: For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland

[20] BITC (2015) Equality, Diversity and Racism in the Workplace: A Qualitative Analysis of the 2015 Race at

Work Survey

[21] Evidence Finder: Ethnicity Labour Market

[22] ONS 27 September 2016 Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

[23] Scottish Government (2015), ‘Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census – Part 2’. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/03/8716/0

[24] EHRC 2015 ‘Is Britain Fairer?’

[25] National Crime Agency (7 April 2017) National Referral Mechanism Statistics – End of Year Summary 2016. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/788-national-referral-mechanism-statistics-end-of-year-summary-2016/file

[26] Scottish Government – Evidence Finder: Income & Poverty

[27] ONS 27 September 2016 Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

[28] Scottish Government (2015) ‘Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census – Part 2’

[29] In order to prove a charge of racially aggravated harassment and behaviour two sources of evidence are required whereas evidence from a single source is sufficient to prove a racial aggravation which is attached to another substantive charge libelled.

[30]Scottish Government (2017) Understanding forced marriage in Scotland

[31] House of Commons Library (2017) Ethnic Minorities in Politics and Public life