Equality in Fife: Sex(Gender)


The characteristic in terms of the Equality Act refers to a man or a woman[1]. In survey data, this characteristic is often self-defined and allows transgender people to self-identify according to their gender and not their biological sex.

In several surveys, this biological characteristic however is still referred to as ‘Gender’. Gender and sex do not mean the same thing. The Scottish Government distinguishes this as:

  • Sex refers to the biological characteristics, which distinguish people as male or female. These relate to the reproductive system.
  • Gender refers to the quality of being male or female. It is about what we expect of women and men. This is not biology, although some gender differences stem from biological differences. To put it simply, men and women are made (by the society they live in), not born[2].

Also, please note that in several sections below, the data referred to is extracted from existing surveys that have not yet incorporated the categories of Intersex and Non-Binary

Interesting facts about Sex (Gender) in Fife

  • 5% of Fifers are female and 48.5% are male
  • The media age of females is 42 and that of males is 41
  • A female born in Fife is expected to live an extra 3.6 years compared to males
  • Females tend participate more than males in Education, training or other development
  • For the years 2015/2016, 67.3% of females attained at least 1 or more at SCQF level 6, compared to 56.3% for males
  • Females are under-represented in Modern Apprenticeships (MA) when compared to the percentage of females aged 16-24 employed in Fife (39.9% / 54.9% respectively)
  • 1% of Building and 98.6% of Automotive apprentices were male and 95.7% of Hairdressing & Barbering and 92% of Social Services and Health apprentices were female
  • MA STEM starts for female is low nationally (6.6%) and lower in Fife at 6.1%
  • The gap in employment rates was higher in Fife at 9.6% (77.4% for males vs 67.8% for females), and it widened in the 2015-2016 period by 1.9%
  • The gender paygap between male and female workers at national level to be £81.9 weekly (£4258.80 per year before tax) and in Fife of £58.30 weekly (£3031.60 per year before tax)
  • For full time workers the paygap was at 17.9% paygap between females and males, compared to a 6.1% pay gap at national level
  • For part-time workers there is a 11.8% pay advantage for women working part-time in Fife, compared to a 9.6% advantage nationally
  • The majority of carers across all ages are female (59.3%), but a higher proportion of males ages 50-64 provide care in Fife compared to Scotland (36.9% vs 34.9%)
  • Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
  • Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
  • In 2016/2017 in Fife out, 4,425 domestic abuse incidents were reported to the Police and out 302 case discussions at MARAC, 301 involved female victims, 3 same sex partners / ex-partners (2 female and 1 male)

Demography

The latest data (July 2016) estimates the total population of Fife to be 370,330, 48.5% of which are male and 51.5% female. The for a higher proportion of females is mainly due to a high life expectancy, as under 25 year of age the ratio between males and females is nearly identical (1.01).

Fife SCOTLAND
Estimated population (2016) 370,330 5,404,700
% Males 48.5 48.6
% Females 51.5 51.4

 

Fife Scotland
Median age – Females 42 42
Median age – Males 41 40
Number of males per female – under 25 1.01 1.03
Number of males per female – 25 to 64 0.96 0.96
Number of males per female – 65 and over 0.78 0.76

 

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

 Children and Young People

 

0 – 4   5 – 9   10 – 14  
SCOTLAND 287,238 5% 298,862 6% 274,378 5%
Fife 19,806 5% 21,308 6% 19,349 5%
Males 10,157 6% 10,906 6% 9,948 6%
Females 9,649 5% 10,402 5% 9,401 5%

Working Age (including Young People (15-24) and Adults (25-64)

15 – 19   20 – 24   25 – 29  
SCOTLAND 298,660 6% 363,967 7% 374,124 7%
Fife 21,090 6% 24,388 7% 21,612 6%
Males 10,687 6% 12,020 7% 10,466 6%
Females 10,403 5% 12,368 6% 11,146 6%

 

30 – 34   35 – 39  
SCOTLAND 351,913 7% 327,753 6%
Fife 21,077 6% 21,253 6%
Males 10,197 6% 10,280 6%
Females 10,880 6% 10,973 6%

 

40 – 44   45 – 49   50 – 54  
SCOTLAND 337,638 6% 392,251 7% 406,691 8%
Fife 22,985 6% 27,380 7% 27,788 8%
Males 11,190 6% 13,408 7% 13,327 7%
Females 11,795 6% 13,972 7% 14,461 8%

 

55 – 59   60 – 64  
SCOTLAND 370,821 7% 321,552 6%
Fife 25,934 7% 22,702 6%
Males 12,779 7% 10,956 6%
Females 13,155 7% 11,746 6%

Pensionable Age (includes Older People (65+) and Very Old People (90+))

65 – 69 70 – 74   75 – 79  
SCOTLAND 317,524 6% 239,019 4% 186,846 3%
Fife 23,935 6% 18,180 5% 13,430 4%
Males 11,517 6% 8,633 5% 6,060 3%
Females 12,418 7% 9,547 5% 7,370 4%

 

80 – 84   85 – 89   90+  
SCOTLAND 136,418 3% 77,978 1% 41,067 1%
Fife 9,600 3% 5,503 1% 3,010 1%
Males 4,105 2% 2,030 1% 886 0%
Females 5,495 3% 3,473 2% 2,124 1%

Source: NRS (27 April 2017): Mid-Year Population Estimates (2016)

 Life expectancy in Scotland and Fife remains consistently slightly higher for females, with a female born today in Scotland expected to live an extra 4 years. In Fife, this figure is comparable at 3.6 years, and the trend is consistent for all age groups 

Age            x Scotland Fife
Males Females Males Females
lx[3] exo[4] lx exo lx exo lx exo
0 100,000 77.09 100,000 81.14 100,000 77.61 100,000 81.21
1 99,650 76.36 99,681 80.40 99,473 77.02 99,523 80.59
5 99,580 72.41 99,634 76.44 99,425 73.06 99,472 76.63
10 99,528 67.45 99,611 71.45 99,316 68.14 99,472 71.63
15 99,475 62.48 99,571 66.48 99,300 63.15 99,419 66.67
20 99,285 57.60 99,477 61.54 99,101 58.27 99,403 61.68
25 98,995 52.76 99,343 56.62 98,893 53.39 99,174 56.82
30 98,531 48.00 99,156 51.72 98,381 48.65 98,963 51.93
35 97,907 43.29 98,832 46.89 97,605 44.02 98,662 47.09
40 97,011 38.66 98,346 42.11 96,694 39.41 98,024 42.37
45 95,642 34.18 97,596 37.41 95,738 34.78 97,388 37.64
50 93,947 29.75 96,533 32.79 94,541 30.19 96,304 33.03
55 91,689 25.42 95,012 28.28 92,002 25.95 94,640 28.57
60 88,344 21.29 92,698 23.92 88,866 21.78 92,468 24.18
65 83,399 17.40 89,284 19.74 84,428 17.79 89,393 19.93
70 76,110 13.83 84,138 15.80 77,274 14.21 84,461 15.94
75 65,457 10.68 76,042 12.21 67,253 10.95 76,601 12.32
80 51,450 7.90 63,870 9.06 54,481 7.93 64,798 9.11
85 34,068 5.66 46,886 6.44 35,965 5.73 47,721 6.48
90 16,372 4.07 26,408 4.49 17,778 4.04 27,190 4.48

Source: NRS (2017) Life Expectancy for Administrative Areas within Scotland 2014-2016, Table 1: Abridged life statistics

Education

Educational attainment of school leavers

Nationally, females tend to outperform males at SCQF Levels 4 to 6 for the years 2015/2016, 67.3% of females attained at least 1 or more at SCQF level 6, compared to 56.3% for males. This has also been consistent over that past 5 years (see link below):

2014/15 2015/16
Gender 1 or more
at SCQF
level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF level 6 or better 1 or more
at SCQF
level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF level 6 or better
Male 95.7 83.1 54.7 95.9 83.9 56.3
Female 96.7 87.3 65.9 96.8 87.5 67.3

Source: NRS (20 June 2017) Summary Statistics for Attainment, Leaver Destinations and Healthy Living – table 6

Teacher Gender Balance

*Gender profiles are reported here as a fair and proportionate representation in the key areas of public life such as education is crucial in shaping norms. The is increasing evidence of a need for greater diversity of people taking STEM courses and training programmes and employed in the STEM sectors and covers gender equality as well as race and disability among other disparities[5].

Fife follows the national average in primary and secondary, with teachers being mainly female (91% and 63% respectively). In special schools, there is a more even balance with 68% of teachers being female (compared to 76% nationally). The proportion of female headteachers and depute headteachers is 90% in primary schools, but lower in secondary schools at 42%. In special schools, this is more balanced at 56%, but low numbers.

Primary
                      Percentage female
Head teacher Depute head teacher Principal teacher Chartered teacher Teacher All  staff Heads and deputes
Fife 117 110 42 26 1,485 91 90
All local authorities 1,700 1,290 1,652 330 18,927 90 87
Secondary
Fife 18 69 409 34 1,040 63 42
All local authorities 336 1,090 5,307 526 15,646 63 51
Special school
Fife 5 6 11 1 50 68 56
All local authorities 103 133 196 37 1,345 76 78

Source: Teacher census, supplementary data
(Combined) Table 7.5, 8.5 and 9.4 :
Primary, Secondary and Special schools –
Headcount of teachers by grade and local authority, 2016

For Further and Higher Education, the gender profile of Fife College at the baseline was 64:36, female: male and by the end of the academic year 2015-16 this was 59:31. The decrease in the number of females between the two reports has corresponded with a decrease in the number of staff overall [6]. 

Annual Participation Measures

Across Scotland, females are more likely to be participating in education compared to males (75.6% vs Males 66.9%), despite a higher count of males overall. A similar pattern can be seen in Fife, with females aged 16-19 participating more than males and this has been consistent over the past two years:

  Female Male
2017: 16-19 Cohort (count) 105,990 111,479
% of 2017 Cohort 48.7% 51.3%
Status Grouping / Year 2016 2017 2016 2017
Participating 91.0% 91.6% 89.7% 90.5%
% Participating in Education 75.9% 75.6% 66.9% 66.9%
% Training & Other Development 1.7% 1.5% 2.5% 2.2%
Not Participating 3.9% 3.6% 4.2% 3.7%
Status Unconfirmed 5.1% 4.7% 6.1% 5.7%

Source: SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure
for 16 – 19 year olds in Scotland 2017

  Total Cohort (16-19)
 

Year

Area Total Cohort (16-19) % Participating (16-19) % Not Participating (16-19) % Unconfirmed Status
(16-19)
2017 Fife 15,328 88.7 4.8 6.5
2017 Scotland 217,490 91.1 3.7 5.3
2016 Fife 15,645 88.3 5.0 6.7
2016 Scotland 222,580 90.4 4.0 5.6

 

  Female (F)
 

Year

Area Total Cohort % Participating % Not Participating % Unconfirmed Status
2017 Fife 7,444 89.5 4.9 5.5
2017 Scotland 105,990 91.6 3.6 4.7
2016 Fife 7,668 89.0 5.2 5.8
2016 Scotland 108,280 91.0 3.9 5.1

 

  Male (M)
 

Year

Area Total Cohort % Participating % Not Participating % Unconfirmed Status
2017 Fife 7,882 87.9 4.7 7.4
2017 Scotland 111,479 90.5 3.7 5.7
2016 Fife 7,975 87.6 4.8 7.5
2016 Scotland 114,285 89.7 4.2 6.1

Source: SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure for 16 – 19 year olds Supplementary Tables 1.8a 

HEI / Colleges subject areas

There are clear gender patterns in subject area selection by students in Scottish Institutions (combining HEIs and Colleges). In the 2015-2016 year cycle, females have predominantly followed allied Medical Studies (81.1%), Veterinary Science (79%), Psychology (77.7%), Education (75.4%) and Social Studies (69%). Males mainly chose Engineering and Technology (84.7%), Computer Science (81%), Architecture, building and planning (63.6%), Mathematical Sciences (58.3%) and Physical Sciences (56.8%). 

Total Male (%) Female (%)
Total 285,450 43.4% 56.6%
Medical Studies
Subjects allied to Medicine 30,755 18.9% 81.1%
Medicine and Dentistry 7,730 41.5% 58.5%
Total 38,485 23.4% 76.6%
Science and Engineering
Agriculture and related subjects 2,185 38.2% 61.8%
Architecture, building and planning 7,150 63.6% 36.4%
Biological Sciences 22,795 34.9% 65.1%
Engineering and Technology 28,760 84.7% 15.3%
Computer Science 14,405 81.4% 18.6%
Mathematical Sciences 4,535 58.3% 41.7%
Physical Sciences 11,770 56.8% 43.2%
Veterinary Science 1,615 21.0% 79.0%
Total 93,215 63.4% 36.6%
Business and Social Studies
Business and Administrative studies 43,560 42.7% 57.3%
Law 10,560 39.8% 60.2%
Mass Communication and documentation 4,430 40.9% 59.1%
Social Studies 26,985 30.4% 69.6%
Total 85,535 38.3% 61.7%
Education and the Arts
Creative Arts & Design 20,230 34.5% 65.5%
Education 14,710 24.6% 75.4%
Historical & Philosophical Studies 10,810 42.3% 57.7%
Languages 11,605 28.3% 71.7%
Total 57,350 32.1% 67.9%
Combined (7) 10,715 42.6% 57.4%

 Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015-16

Table 10b: Students by subject and gender

Total Male (%) Female (%)
Total 285,450 43.4% 56.6%
Supplementary subjects contained
in the above categories
Economics and Politics 8,125 51.4% 48.6%
English 4,715 27.7% 72.3%
Geography (8) 2,445 40.5% 59.5%
Psychology 9,075 22.3% 77.7%

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015-16

Table 10b: Students by subject and gender

Modern Apprenticeships

The proportion of Modern Apprentices who are female in Fife compares favourably with the national rate (39.9% for Fife, 39.8% for Scotland). Females are under-represented in Modern Apprenticeships when compared to the percentage of females aged 16-24 employed in Fife (39.9% / 54.9% respectively), only in the 20-24 age group is the proportion more balanced at 47.6% female to 52.4%.

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

STEM starts for female is low nationally (6.6%) and lower in Fife at 6.1%

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

There clear gender profiles in the apprenticeships frameworks, that are consistent with patterns at national level. 99.1% of Building and 98.6% of Automotive apprentices were male. 95.7% of Hairdressing & Barbering and 92% of Social Services and Health apprentices were female.

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

Work

Employment

Conversely to participation within higher education, in the 16-19 age group, males are more likely than females to be in employment, with a difference of 7% (i.e. 21.5% for males vs 14.5% for females) recorded for 2016-2017 at Scotland level.

  Female Male
  2016 2017 2016 2017
Participating 91.0% 91.6% 89.7% 90.5%
% Participating in Education 75.9% 75.6% 66.9% 66.9%
% Participating in Employment 13.4% 14.5% 20.3% 21.5%
% Training & Other Development 1.7% 1.5% 2.5% 2.2%
Not Participating 3.9% 3.6% 4.2% 3.7%
% Unemployed Seeking 2.1% 1.7% 3.2% 2.5%
% Unemployed Not seeking 1.8% 1.9% 0.9% 1.2%
Status Unconfirmed 5.1% 4.7% 6.1% 5.7%

Source: SDS (29 August 2017) Annual Participation Measure for 16 – 19 year olds

In 2016 in Scotland, 87.2% of men in employment were in full time employment compared to 58.3% of women[7]. Across the working age / 16-64 age group, the difference in employment rates stood at 7.7% (i.e. 76.9% for males vs 69.2% for females) nationally. The gap in employment rates was wider in Fife at 9.6% (77.4% vs 67.8%), and it widened in the 2015-2016 period by 1.9%.

Area 2014 2015 2016 Change over year
Rate Level Rate Level Rate Level Rate % Level
Scotland – Males 76.4% 1,321,300 76.2% 1,320,400 76.9% 1,334,300 0.7 13,900
Fife – Males 78.3% 89,000 76.9% 87,600 77.4% 88,700 0.5 1,100
                 
Scotland – Females 68.8% 1,236,400 70.1% 1,256,900 69.2% 1,245,400 -0.9 -11,500
Fife – Females 70.0% 84,900 69.7% 84,400 67.8% 85,100 -1.9 700
                 

Source: Labour Market – Local Authority Tables 2016
Table 1.2 & 1.3 Employment rates and levels for Men / Women

A census based ONS FOI 2016 request[8] showed that at national level the intersection of gender and race with 71% of white females employed, compared to 44.4% of ethnic minority females, contrasted to 76.2% of white males and 76.1% of ethnic minority males. In 2011, 48.2% of ethnic minority females aged 16-64 were economically inactive:

Aged 16-64 employment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 2,377,100 3,233,200 73.5 0.9
ethnic minority 92,300 156,000 59.2 6.0
white males 1,205,900 1,582,800 76.2 1.3
ethnic minority males 55,400 72,800 76.1 7.7
white females 1,171,200 1,650,300 71.0 1.3
ethnic minority females 36,900 83,300 44.4 8.2

 

16+ unemployment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 144,400 2,600,700 5.6 0.5
ethnic minority 8,900 102,200 8.7 4.1
white males 86,000 1,340,600 6.4 0.8
ethnic minority males 2,700 58,400 4.6 4.1
white females 58,400 1,260,000 4.6 0.7
ethnic minority females 6,200 43,800 14.2 7.6

 

Aged 16-64 who are economically inactive numerator denominator % conf
white 713,000 3,233,200 22.1 0.9
ethnic minority 54,800 156,000 35.1 5.8
white males 291,700 1,582,800 18.4 1.2
ethnic minority males 14,700 72,800 20.2 7.2
white females 421,300 1,650,300 25.5 1.3
ethnic minority females 40,100 83,300 48.2 8.2

Source: ONS (2016) FOI – Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

The opposite trend can be seen with the intersection of gender and disability, with Equality Act disabled females having a higher employment rate than males (49.1% vs 41.7%). This indicated a gap of 7.4%.

Equality Act Disabled Not Equality Act Disabled
Males Females Males Females
Rate Change on year Rate Change on year Rate Change on year Rate Change on year
Economic Activity rate 47.7 -2.0 ò 53.4 7.0 ñ 89.6 0.6 ñ 80.7 -1.1 ò  
Employment rate 41.7 -0.9 ò 49.1 7.8 ñ 86.0 1.0 ñ 78.3 -0.4 ò  
Unemployment rate 12.7 -1.8 ò 8.0 -2.9 ò 4.0 -0.6 ò 2.9 -0.9 ò  
Economic Inactivity rate 52.3 2.0 ñ 46.6 -7.0 ò 10.4 -0.6 ò 19.3 1.1 ñ  

Source: Labour Market Briefing – November 2017
Table Q5: Economic activity rates of the population aged 16-64

Earnings

The NOMIS Labour profile tool reports the gender paygap between male and female workers at national level to be £81.9 weekly (£4258.80 per year before tax) and in Fife of £58.30 weekly (£3031.60 per year before tax).

Gross Weekly Pay Fife
(£)
Scotland
(£)
Full-Time Workers 530.5 547.7
Male Full-Time Workers 554.8 580.2
Female Full-Time Workers 496.5 498.3
Hourly Pay – Excluding Overtime    
Full-Time Workers 13.48 13.85
Male Full-Time Workers 13.50 14.32
Female Full-Time Workers 13.38 13.31

Source: Earnings by place of residence (2017 – for 2017 figures)
Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife

The EHRC Gender Paygap Tool gives a more detailed breakdown of gender profiles across full time and part time work, comparing median pay per hour. In Fife, there is a marked 17.9% paygap between female and male full-time workers, this is compared to a 6.1% pay gap at national level.

 

The opposite is observed for part-time remuneration, where there is a 11.8% pay advantage for women working part-time in Fife, compared to a 9.6% advantage nationally.

 

The most noticeable gap in pay is in comparison of between women working part-time and men working part-time, comparable for Fife at 32.4% and nationally at 33.1%:

Source: EHRC Paygap Visualisation: Scotland – Fulltime only
Source: EHRC Paygap Visualisation: Scotland – Partime only

 

Source: EHRC Paygap Visualisation: Scotland – Fulltime only
Source: EHRC Paygap Visualisation: Scotland – Partime only
Source: EHRC Paygap Visualisation: Scotland – Partime women – Fulltime men

Forced labour and trafficking

Potential victims of Modern slavery and trafficking numbered up to 150 in 2016 across Scotland, an increase of 3.4% on the previous year[9]. While the referrals were equally divided between males and females, their nature was highly gendered with 36 females vs 3 males claiming sexual exploitation and 16 females vs 60 males claiming labour exploitation:

Source: National Crime Agency (7 April 2017) National Referral Mechanism Statistics – End of Year Summary 2016

Living Standards

Poverty

Poverty rates tend to be higher for single working age adults than the population as a whole and is even between males and females. In 2015-16, 27% of single working age women without children were in poverty after housing costs, compared with 27% of single working age men[10].

Poverty rates after housing costs for female lone parents were at 45% in 2015-16 while poverty before housing costs for lone parents rose to 31% in 2015-16.

Source: Scottish government (2016) Poverty equality analysis

Carers

The 2011 census reports 34,828 carers in Fife, which at 9.5% of the population is directly comparable to the national average (9.3%), along with other trends that are also similar: the majority of carers are female (59.3%), employed (51.9%) and 19.9% are aged 65 or over, with 5.4% of Fifers aged 65+ care for over 35 hours a week. A higher proportion of males ages 50-64 provide care in Fife compared to Scotland (36.9% vs 34.9%).

  Fife Scotland
% Carers who are female 59.3 59.2
% Carers who are employed (excluding full-time students) 51.9 53.2
% Carers aged under 16 1.9 2.0
% Carers aged 65 and over 19.9 19.3

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Carers

Fife Number of people Age group % Male / Female %
Age Male Female Male Female Male Female
0 to 24 1,030 1,370 7.3% 6.6% 42.9% 57.1%
25 to 49 4,660 7,870 32.8% 38.1% 37.2% 62.8%
50 to 64 5,230 7,750 36.9% 37.5% 40.3% 59.7%
65+ 3,270 3,650 23.0% 17.7% 47.3% 52.7%
All people 14,190 20,640 100.0% 100.0% 40.7% 59.3%

Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based)

Health

Compared to Scotland over the period 2012 to 2014, Fife had a lower death rate at 10.2 peer 1000 people. The main cause of death in Fife was cancer, followed by circulatory disease, this is consistent across males and females:

Age specific death rate per 1,000 people, Fife Age specific death rate per 1,000 people, Scotland
Age group Male Female All Persons Male Female All Persons
0 4.9 5.2 5.1 3.8 3.1 3.5
1-14 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
15-29 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.5
30-44 1.9 1 1.4 1.9 1 1.4
45-64 5.7 4 4.8 6.5 4.3 5.4
65+ 48.3 44.7 46.3 50 46.8 48.2
All ages 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.4 10.3

Source: NRS (08/06/2016): Fife Council Area – Demographic Factsheet

Source: NRS 2016 Fife area profile
Cause of death in males, Fife, 2014*

Source: NRS 2016 Fife area profile
Cause of death in females, Fife, 2014*

Healthy Life Expectancy

Life expectancy (LE[11]) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE[12]) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. HLE is a key summary measure of a population’s health. In Fife, LE and HLE in Fife loosely follows Scotland’s averages, with 76.9 and 63.3 years for males and 81.0 and 65.4 for females respectively.

Males

  • Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest male LE at birth (80.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest male LE at birth (72.6 years).
  • HLE at birth broadly followed the same pattern, with East Dunbartonshire having the highest male HLE (68.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest (55.9 years).
  • This means that a boy born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 7.4 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.

 

LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected period in ‘not healthy’ health
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 80.3 79.8 80.8 68.3 68.1 68.5 12.0
Fife 76.9 76.6 77.2 63.3 63.2 63.4 13.6
Glasgow City 72.6 72.4 72.9 55.9 55.8 56.0 16.7
SCOTLAND 76.6 76.5 76.7 63.1 63.1 63.2 13.5

 Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle

Females

  • Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest female LE at birth (83.4 years), and Glasgow City the lowest female LE at birth (78.4 years).
  • This means that a girl born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 6.9 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected period in ‘not healthy’ health
Local authority LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
East Dunbartonshire 83.4 82.9 83.8 69.5 69.2 69.7 13.9
Fife 81.0 80.8 81.3 65.4 65.3 65.5 15.7
Glasgow City 78.4 78.2 78.7 58.5 58.4 58.6 20.0
SCOTLAND 80.8 80.8 80.9 65.3 65.2 65.3 15.6

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle

Health outcomes

On average with increasing age for the whole population, day-to-day activities tend to become increasingly limited. The 2011 census recorded this as up to 83% of the Fifers aged 85+:

  All Day-to-day activities limited Day-to-day activities not limited
    Number % Number %
All people 365,198 74,246 20% 29,0952 80%
0 to 15 64,397 3,306 5% 61,091 95%
16 to 24 42,525 2,959 7% 39,566 93%
25 to 34 41,589 3,580 9% 38,009 91%
35 to 49 78,487 11,044 14% 67,443 86%
50 to 64 74,129 19,293 26% 54,836 74%
65 to 74 35,181 14,468 41% 20,713 59%
75 to 84 21,155 13,145 62% 8,010 38%
85 and over 7,735 6,451 83% 1,284 17%

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 Limiting long term health problem or disability age group

NHS Fife (September 2016) Analysis: Fife Population; an analysis by protected characteristics

55% of people limited in day to day activities due to long term health problem or disability in Fife are female. There are more males in Fife aged 0 to 34, and males also have the highest proportion of this age band whose day-to-day activities are limited a lot due long term health problem or disability. The highest proportion is in the 10-14/15 age groups at 67%-68%. In the age group of 85+, this is reversed, with 71% being female:

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
0 to 4 188 103 54.8% 85 45.2%
5 to 9 345 219 63.5% 126 36.5%
10 to 14 467 313 67.0% 154 33.0%
15 103 70 68.0% 33 32.0%

  

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
16 to 17 193 113 58.5% 80 41.5%
18 to 19 209 113 54.1% 96 45.9%
20 to 24 511 282 55.2% 229 44.8%
25 to 29 593 309 52.1% 284 47.9%
30 to 34 726 386 53.2% 340 46.8%
35 to 39 1149 546 47.5% 603 52.5%
40 to 44 1696 771 45.5% 925 54.5%
45 to 49 2016 831 41.2% 1185 58.8%
50 to 54 2498 1132 45.3% 1366 54.7%
55 to 59 3021 1412 46.7% 1609 53.3%
60 to 64 3702 1906 51.5% 1796 48.5%
65 to 69 3284 1680 51.2% 1604 48.8%

  

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
65 to 69 3284 1680 51.2% 1604 48.8%
70 to 74 3258 1496 45.9% 1762 54.1%
75 to 79 3368 1484 44.1% 1884 55.9%
80 to 84 3289 1283 39.0% 2006 61.0%
85 and over 4213 1219 28.9% 2994 71.1%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Limiting long term health problem or disability (Day-to-day activities limited a lot) by age group and sex; Fife

Similar patterns exist for people who are ‘limited a lot’:

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
0 to 4 266 160 60.2% 106 39.8%
5 to 9 706 449 63.6% 257 36.4%
10 to 14 991 623 62.9% 368 37.1%
15 240 143 59.6% 97 40.4%

 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
16 to 17 495 269 54.3% 226 45.7%
18 to 19 423 232 54.8% 191 45.2%
20 to 24 1128 505 44.8% 623 55.2%
25 to 29 1092 481 44.0% 611 56.0%
30 to 34 1169 490 41.9% 679 58.1%
35 to 39 1565 708 45.2% 857 54.8%
40 to 44 2059 946 45.9% 1113 54.1%
45 to 49 2559 1171 45.8% 1388 54.2%
50 to 54 2877 1319 45.8% 1558 54.2%
55 to 59 3084 1455 47.2% 1629 52.8%
60 to 64 4111 1856 45.1% 2255 54.9%

 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
60 to 64 4111 1856 45.1% 2255 54.9%
65 to 69 4057 1919 47.3% 2138 52.7%
70 to 74 3869 1805 46.7% 2064 53.3%
75 to 79 3634 1620 44.6% 2014 55.4%
80 to 84 2854 1145 40.1% 1709 59.9%
85 and over 2238 747 33.4% 1491 66.6%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Limiting long term health problem or disability (Day-to-day activities limited a lot) by age group and sex; Fife

 When comparing population who are ‘not limited’, there is a more even distribution across males and females: 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
0 to 4 20321 10394 51.1% 9927 48.9%
5 to 9 18105 9176 50.7% 8929 49.3%
10 to 14 18728 9413 50.3% 9315 49.7%
15 3937 1963 49.9% 1974 50.1%

 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
16 to 17 8164 4021 49.3% 4143 50.7%
18 to 19 8900 4453 50.0% 4447 50.0%
20 to 24 22502 10818 48.1% 11684 51.9%
25 to 29 19117 9480 49.6% 9637 50.4%
30 to 34 18892 9202 48.7% 9690 51.3%
35 to 39 20321 9962 49.0% 10359 51.0%
40 to 44 23690 11760 49.6% 11930 50.4%
45 to 49 23432 11552 49.3% 11880 50.7%
50 to 54 20777 10515 50.6% 10262 49.4%
55 to 59 16876 8336 49.4% 8540 50.6%
60 to 64 17183 8419 49.0% 8764 51.0%

 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
65 to 69 12188 5826 47.8% 6362 52.2%
70 to 74 8525 3940 46.2% 4585 53.8%
75 to 79 5423 2415 44.5% 3008 55.5%
80 to 84 2587 1093 42.2% 1494 57.8%
85 and over 1284 494 38.5% 790 61.5%

 Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Limiting long term health problem or disability
(Day-to-day activities not limited) by age group and sex; Fife

Visual Impairment and Vision Loss

Fife Society for the Blind reported that by September 2017, 1145 people registered as partially sighted and 1010 registered as Blind, and that this was evenly distributed across males and females:

  No. of people registered as Partially Sighted   No. of people registered as Blind
Female Male Total   Female Male Total
Under 16 17 24 41   10 12 22
16 – 29 31 38 69   23 27 50
30 – 49 44 73 117   42 54 96
50 – 64 73 65 138   77 79 156
65 – 74 66 70 136   50 56 106
75 & over 421 223 644   392 188 580
      1145       1010

Source: Fife Society for the Blind – September 2017, per request

Mental health

The national mean scores on the WEMWBS have been consistent since 2008 and in 2016, (for men and women aged 16 and over) was 49.8[13]. There has also been a consistent gender element in the scores, with men aged 34-44 tending to have the lowest mean score of all age groups (49.4) and women aged 64-74 had the highest mean score (51.1).

 

WEMWBS scores

Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
Men
Mean 50.3 49.1 49.4 49.5 50.1 50.8 50.4 49.9
Women
Mean 47.9 50.7 49.9 49.5 49.9 51.1 50.6 49.9
All adults
Mean 49.1 49.9 49.7 49.5 50.0 51.0 50.5 49.9

Source: The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1: Main Report
Table 1: Mental Health and Wellbeing

The ScotPHO Mental Health Profile for Fife, shows on average that young people do less well than the national average. There are also gender effects that noticeable, with S2 males doing worse on indicator 2 (i.e. showing a lack of prosocial behaviour) and doing better on indicator 3 (showing emotional symptoms). For S2 females, this is reversed with females doing comparatively better on prosocial behaviour but worse on all other indicators. S4 females in Fife also score lower than the national average on emotional symptoms and emotional / behavioural problems than S4 males.

Suicide Rates

Under a new coding system implemented in 2011[14], 728 probable suicides were recorded nationally in 2016, 71% of which were male deaths. The majority of probable suicides were recorded as caused by intentional self-harm (82.8%).

All such deaths Sex Nature of death
Number registered in year Males Females Intentional self-harm Undetermined intent
Year
2011 889 639 71.9% 250 28.1% 527 59.3% 362 40.7%
2012 830 608 73.3% 222 26.7% 569 68.6% 261 31.4%
2013 795 611 76.9% 184 23.1% 601 75.6% 194 24.4%
2014 696 497 71.4% 199 28.6% 549 78.9% 147 21.1%
2015 672 476 70.8% 196 29.2% 556 82.7% 116 17.3%
2016 728 517 71.0% 211 29.0% 603 82.8% 125 17.2%

Source: NRS (2017) Probable Suicides: Deaths which are the Result of Intentional Self-harm or Events of Undetermined Intent (Table 1 – new coding counts only)

In Fife, the number of probable suicides recorded has been going down over the past 5 years (with 43 recorded in 2016), and so is the proportion (5.9%) of all such deaths:

Year All Scotland Fife Glasgow City
2011 889 63 7.1% 103 11.6%
2012 830 58 7.0% 105 12.7%
2013 795 68 8.6% 87 10.9%
2014 696 58 8.3% 85 12.2%
2015 672 41 6.1% 69 10.3%
2016 728 43 5.9% 91 12.5%

Source: NRS (2017) Probable Suicides: Deaths which are the Result of Intentional Self-harm or Events of Undetermined Intent (Table 5 – new coding counts only)

Justice and Personal Security

Risk of crime

Across Scotland, the risk of being a victim of a crime is higher for males (15.6%) than for females (13.6%), and that males also had a higher risk of being as victim of violent crime than females (3.5% compared to 1.8% respectively), both are statistically significant. The 16-24 age group is at 20.4% the most likely to be victim of all SCJS crime:

Percentage of adults Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime Number of Respondents
All 13.0 2.6 14.5 11,470
Gender
Male 13.4 3.5 15.6 5,180
Female 12.6 1.8 13.6 6,290
Age
16-24 16.8 6.0 20.4 930
25-44 16.5 3.5 18.4 3,420
45-59 13.7 2.2 15.3 2,970
60 or over 6.4 0.4 6.8 4,160
Age within gender
Male 16-24 17.9 8.7 23.6 430
Male 25-44 15.4 5.0 18.3 1,530
Male 45-59 13.9 1.9 15.3 1,360
Male 60 or over 7.9 0.4 8.3 1,860
Female 16-24 15.7 3.2 17.1 500
Female 25-44 17.6 2.0 18.6 1,880
Female 45-59 13.6 2.4 15.2 1,610
Female 60 or over 5.2 0.3 5.5 2,300

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15

Table 4.1 The varying risk of crime by age and gender 

Characteristics of Offenders

Crime and risk of crime have enduring gendered characteristics. The Scottish Crime Survey 2014/2015 reports that where victims could provide information about the offender, offenders were much more likely to be male (74%) than female (15%).

Percentage of SCJS crimes where respondent  was able to say anything about the offender(s)
Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime
Gender
Male 69 77 74
Female 14 16 15
Person/People of both sexes 15 6 10
Age
School age 22 9 15
16-24 33 35 34
25-39 30 39 35
40 or over 15 22 19
Number of Respondents 400 270 670

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15

Table 4.5: Characteristics of Offenders

Sexual crimes and domestic abuse

Across Scotland, in 2015-2016, 12,374 people were convicted, the majority of which were males (11978 out of 13823 / 86.7%) on charges of domestic aggravators:

2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change 2014-15 to 2015-16
Male and Female
All aggravators 10,040 10,481 12,294 13,751 13,823 1%
Domestic 8,877 9,292 11,077 12,440 12,374 -1%
Racial 626 696 699 702 761 8%
Religious 370 272 256 241 245 2%
Sexual orientation 155 194 227 320 368 15%
Disability 9 21 30 40 68 70%
Transgender 3 6 5 8 7 -13%

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015-16

Table 12: People convicted with an aggravator recorded against the main charge by gender 

  2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change 2014-15 to 2015-16
Male
All aggravators 8,933 9,184 10,715 11,884 11,978 1%
Domestic 7,927 8,176 9,693 10,795 10,741 -1%
Racial 512 569 569 574 633 10%
Religious 349 255 239 213 228 7%
Sexual orientation 135 164 186 265 316 19%
Disability 8 16 23 33 55 67%
Transgender 2 4 5 4 5 25%

 

  2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 % change 2014-15 to 2015-16
Female
All aggravators 1,107 1,297 1,579 1,867 1,845 -1%
Domestic 950 1,116 1,384 1,645 1,633 -1%
Racial 114 127 130 128 128 0%
Religious 21 17 17 28 17 -39%
Sexual orientation 20 30 41 55 52 -5%
Disability 1 5 7 7 13 86%
Transgender 1 2   4 2 -50%

 Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015-16

Table 12: People convicted with an aggravator recorded against the main charge by gender 

Domestic abuse – MARAC

In 2016/2017 in Fife, 4,425 domestic abuse incidents were reported to the Police[15].

Out of 302 case discussions at MARAC for the highest risk domestic abuse cases, 301 involved female victims, 3 same sex partners / ex-partners (2 female and 1 male).  571 involved children, with 66 child protection concerns noted (including 17 unborn babies).

The profile of victims and offenders is comparable to the national figures, with the average age of victims of 31 years, within a range of 15 to 70 years. Perpetrators tend to be slightly older, with an average age of 34 years, within a range of 16 to 66 years.

Source: MARAC Fife Annual Report 2016/2017

While in general the incidence of crime is diminishing, it is important to note that both across Fife and Scotland, there has been a rise in recorded Sexual Crimes:

Local authority area Non-sexual crimes of violence Sexual crimes Total crimes Total offences Total crimes and offences
2016-17          
Fife 439 893 13,425 18,117 31,542
SCOTLAND 7,164 10,822 238,651 288,961 527,612
2015-16          
Fife 410 834 13,476 20,378 33,854
SCOTLAND 6,775 10,273 246,243 339,193 585,436

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey – Comparison of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017

Crimes and offences recorded by local authority area 

Prison population

The population of females in prison has consistently been low, with figures for 2015/2016 of 404 out of 7,271 in total (5.3%). 

  Male Female Total % female efem,aFemale
2004/05 6,444 332 6,776 4.9%
2005/06 6,521 335 6,856 4.9%
2006/07 6,833 354 7,187 4.9%
2007/08 7,004 372 7,376 5.0%
2008/09 7,413 414 7,827 5.3%
2009/10 7,538 426 7,964 5.3%
2010/11 7,418 436 7,854 5.6%
2011/12 7,710 469 8,179 5.7%
2012/13 7,598 459 8,057 5.7%
2013/14 7,462 432 7,894 5.5%
2015/16 7,271 404 7,675 5.3%

Source: UK Prison Population Statistics
Parliament UK Number SN/SG/04334, 20 April 2017
 

Participation

Political and civic participation and representation

Across Scotland, the level of applicants 43% of applicants to public appointments were women and 59% were appointed.  There is no further local breakdown available at this time (Public Appointments in Scotland 2016 Diversity Analysis Report – March 2017).

[1] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p9

[2] Scottish Government (2010) What does gender have to do with violence against women?

[3] The column headed lx shows the numbers who would survive to the exact age of x out of 100,000 persons who, from birth, were subject to the mortality probabilities indicated by the death records for 2013-2015.

[4] Column exo shows the expectation of life, that is, the average number of years of life left to persons aged exactly x who are subject to the 2013-2015 mortality probabilities from age x onwards.

[5] Scottish Government (2017) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – Education and Training Strategy for Scotland

[6] Fife College Mainstreaming report (April 2017) p12

[7] Scottish Government (2017) Annual Population Survey 2016

[8] Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

[9] National Crime Agency (7 April 2017) National Referral Mechanism Statistics – End of Year Summary 2016. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/788-national-referral-mechanism-statistics-end-of-year-summary-2016/file

[10] Scottish Government (August 2016) Poverty Analysis

[11] Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points

[12] As above

[13] Scottish Government (2017) Health of Scotland’s population – Mental Health

[14] ‘drug abuse’ deaths from ‘acute intoxication’ with undetermined intent, that would previously have been counted under ‘mental and behavioural disorders’, are now counted under ‘poisoning’ and some of them will be counted as ‘probable suicides’.

[15] MARAC Annual report 2016/2017