What do we know about Sex (Gender) and Equality?

The characteristic in terms of the Equality Act refers to a man or a woman[1]. In survey data, this characteristic is often self-defined and allows transgender people to self-identify according to their gender and not their biological sex.

In several surveys, this biological characteristic however is still referred to as ‘Gender’. Gender and sex do not mean the same thing. The Scottish Government distinguishes this as:

  • Sex refers to the biological characteristics, which distinguish people as male or female. These relate to the reproductive system.
  • Gender refers to the quality of being male or female. It is about what we expect of women and men. This is not biology, although some gender differences stem from biological differences. To put it simply, men and women are made (by the society they live in), not born[2].

Also, please note that in several sections below, the data referred to is extracted from existing surveys that have not yet incorporated the categories of Intersex and Non-Binary.

Interesting #Equalityfacts about Sex (Gender) in Fife

Gender and life expectancy differences

51.5% of Fifers are female and 48.5% are male. The median age of females is 42 and that of males is 41. In Fife, life expectancy at birth was higher for females (81.2 years) than for males (77.6 years) in 2014-16. In Fife, life expectancy at birth is higher than at Scotland level for both females and males.

Older women living up to 2 years longer than men in poor health

Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years and women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years.

Higher participation of younger females and unemployment of younger males

Across young people aged 16-19 in Scotland, females are more likely to be participating compared to males (92.5% vs 91.2% for males), despite a higher count of males in this age bracket. A similar pattern can be seen in Fife, with females participating more than males and this has been consistent over the past two years.  In November 2018, there was a higher proportion of male claimants in Fife (4.7%) than females (2.0%). To note is that under Universal Credit there is a broader span of claimants are required to look for work than under Jobseeker’s Allowance. As Universal Credit Full Service was rolled out in Fife, the number of people recorded as being on the Claimant Count also rose.

Persistent Gender Paygaps

People of working age in Fife are paid on average £482.4 per week, which is somewhat less than Scotland’s average of £530.0 per week, however gross weekly pay has increased by 4.9% compared to 2.6% nationally in the past year. The highest increase was for female part-time employees, with a change of +9.7%. Figures for part-time male employees were too low to be measured reliably.

Those figures indicate a gender paygap between male and female workers at national level to be £198.1 weekly (£10301.20 per year before tax) and in Fife of £156.60 weekly (£8143.2 per year before tax), when comparing all types of employment. For full-time employment, the paygap in Fife is £77.6 per week (£4035.20) per year, and £115.5 nationally (£6006 per year). For part-time employment, there is a pay advantage (i.e. women earn on average more than men) of £36.5 weekly (£1898 per year).

Consistent levels of gender-based violence and sexual crimes

In Fife in 2017/2018 there were 4418 domestic abuse incidents recorded by the police, with 411 high risk cases were discussed at MARAC. This compares to 2016/2017 in Fife, 4,425 domestic abuse incidents were reported to the Police. Out of 302 case discussions at MARAC for the highest risk domestic abuse cases, 301 involved female victims, 3 same sex partners / ex-partners (2 female and 1 male).  571 involved children, with 66 child protection concerns noted (including 17 unborn babies).

Demography

The latest data (April 2018) estimates the total population of Fife to be 371,410, 48.5% of which are male and 51.5% female. The higher proportion of females is mainly due to a high life expectancy, as they are more males under 18 years of age (37071 vs 35010 females).

Fife’s age groups: Count Percentage
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
All aged under 16 64333 33029 31304 17% 18% 16%
All aged under 18 72081 37071 35010 19% 21% 18%
All aged 16 & over 307077 147283 159794 83% 82% 84%
All aged 18 & over 299329 143241 156088 81% 79% 82%
Working age 230159 113548 116611 62% 63% 61%
Pension age 76918 33735 43183 21% 19% 23%
All aged 65 & over 74592 33735 40857 20% 19% 21%
All aged 75 & over 32089 13459 18630 9% 7% 10%
All aged 85 & over 8587 3027 5560 2% 2% 3%
 

All

 

371,410

 

180,312

 

191,098

48.5%  

51.5%

Table 192 Age groups and sex structure of Fife in 2017

Source: NRS Estimated population mid-2017 (19 April 2018)

The tables below show a further breakdown of the population number distribution in 5-year groups for Fife and Scotland:

Children and Young People (0-14)

Area All Ages   0 – 4 5 – 9 10 – 14
Scotland 5,424,800   282,106 301,951 280,097
Fife 371,410   19,405 21,454 19,826
Males Scotland 2,640,300   145,116 154,124 143,480
Males Fife 180,312   9,994 11,001 10,154
Females Scotland 2,784,500   136,990 147,827 136,617
Females Fife 191,098   9,411 10,453 9,672

Table 193 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 0-14. Mid-2017 estimates

Working Age (including Young People (15-24) and Adults (25-64)

Area 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39
Scotland 290,040 356,609 382,248 355,080 339,053
Fife 20,533 24,391 22,081 20,913 21,828
Males Scotland 148,274 179,137 190,376 174,490 166,226
Males Fife 10,533 11,999 10,799 10,006 10,549
Females Scotland 141,766 177,472 191,872 180,590 172,827
Females Fife 10,000 12,392 11,282 10,907 11,279

Table 194 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 15-39. Mid-2017 estimates

Area 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 55 – 59 60 – 64
Scotland 325,033 385,070 407,049 378,886 329,011
Fife 21,964 26,805 27,986 26,456 23,176
Males Scotland 159,473 185,460 197,378 184,607 159,938
Males Fife 10,808 12,963 13,561 12,940 11,270
Females Scotland 165,560 199,610 209,671 194,279 169,073
Females Fife 11,156 13,842 14,425 13,516 11,906

Table 195 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 40-64. Mid-2017 estimates

Pensionable Age (includes Older People (65+) and Very Old People (90+)) 

Area 65 – 69 70 – 74 75 – 79 80 – 84 85 – 89 90+
Scotland 305,066 259,530 188,262 137,893 80,091 41,725
Fife 22,609 19,894 13,652 9,850 5,518 3,069
Males Scotland 147,373 122,353 83,611 57,034 29,462 12,388
Males Fife 10,787 9,489 6,255 4,177 2,080 947
Females Scotland 157,693 137,177 104,651 80,859 50,629 29,337
Females Fife 11,822 10,405 7,397 5,673 3,438 2,122

 Table 196 Fife and Scotland Population breakdown, 65-90+. Mid-2017 estimates

Source: NRS Estimated population, mid-2017 Table 3 

Education

Educational attainment of school leavers

Nationally, females tend to outperform males at SCQF Levels 4 to 6. For the years 2016/2017, 67.2% of females attained at least 1 or more at SCQF level 6, compared to 55.5% for males. This has also been consistent over that past 6 years (see link below):

  2015/16 2016/17
  1 or more
at SCQF
Level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF Level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF Level 6 or better 1 or more
at SCQF
Level 4 or
better
1 or more at SCQF Level 5 or better 1 or more at SCQF Level 6 or better
Gender            
Male 95.9 83.9 56.3 95.9 84.1 55.5
Female 96.8 87.5 67.3 96.7 88.2 67.2
All Leavers 96.3 85.6 61.7 96.3 86.1 61.2

Table 197 Percentage of Male and Female school leavers by attainment at SCQF4 – 6

Source: NRS (19 Jun 2018) Summary Statistics for Attainment, Leaver Destinations and Healthy Living  

Teacher Gender Balance

*Gender profiles are reported here as a fair and proportionate representation in the key areas of public life such as education is crucial in shaping norms. The is increasing evidence of a need for greater diversity of people taking STEM courses and training programmes and employed in the STEM sectors and covers gender equality as well as race and disability among other disparities[3].

Fife follows the national average in primary and secondary, with teachers being mainly female (91% and 62% respectively). In special schools, there is a more even balance with 69% of teachers being female (compared to 76% nationally). The proportion of female headteachers and depute headteachers is 90% in primary schools, higher than the national average. It is however lower in secondary schools at 43% (vs 52%) and again lower in special schools at 60% (vs 76%).

                      Percentage female
Head teacher Depute head teacher Principal teacher Chartered teacher Teacher All  staff Heads and deputes
Primary
Fife 112 106 58 21 1,465 91 90
All local authorities 1,693 1,290 1,652 330 18,927 90 87
Secondary
Fife 18 70 428 34 1,036 62 43
All local authorities 333 1,106 5,372 483 15,805 63 52
Special school
Fife 5 5 13 1 59 69 60
All local authorities 100 132 193 38 1,319 76 76

Table 198 Primary, Secondary and Special schools – Headcount of teachers by grade and local authority, 2016

Source: Teacher census 2017(8 March 2018) Table 7.5, 8.5 and 9.4

For Further and Higher Education, the gender profile of Fife College at the baseline was 64:36, female: male and by the end of the academic year 2015-16 this was 59:31. The decrease in the number of females between the two reports has corresponded with a decrease in the number of staff overall [4]. 

Annual Participation Measures and gender

In terms of participation, females tend to have a higher participation rate than males in education in the 16-19 age-group:

Figure 65 % of participation by gender, in Fife 2016-2018

Source: SDS (28 August 2018) Annual Participation Measure – Interactive Tables

Across young people aged 16-19 in Scotland, females are more likely to be participating compared to males (92.5% vs 91.2% for males), despite a higher count of males in this age bracket. A similar pattern can be seen in Fife, with females participating more than males and this has been consistent over the past two years:

  Total Cohort (16-19) % Participating (16-19) % Not Participating (16-19) % Unconfirmed Status
(16-19)
   

All genders

 

Fife 15,104 90.1 4.3 5.6
Scotland 211,255 91.8 3.4 4.7
 

Female (F)

  Total Cohort (F) % Participating (F) % Not Participating (F) % Unconfirmed Status (F)
Fife 7,240 90.4 4.6 5.0
Scotland 102,877 92.5 3.3 4.2
 

Male (M)

  Total Cohort (M) % Participating (M) % Not Participating (M) % Unconfirmed Status (M)
Fife 7,860 89.8 4.0 6.1
Scotland 108,341 91.2 3.6 5.2

% of participation by gender, in Fife 2016-2018

Source: SDS (28 August 2018) Annual Participation Measure – Supplementary Tables

HEI / Colleges subject areas

There are clear gender patterns in subject area selection by students in Scottish Institutions (combining HEIs and Colleges). In the 2016-2017 year cycle, females have predominantly followed allied Medical Studies (81.7%), Veterinary Science (80.3%), and Education (75%). Males mainly chose Engineering and Technology (83.9%), Computer Science (81.6%), Architecture, building and planning (64.5). Those patterns are similar to the previous year. 

Total Male (%) Female (%)
Total 285,450 43.4% 56.6%
Medical Studies
Subjects allied to Medicine 32,095 18.3% 81.7%
Medicine and Dentistry 7,710 40.5% 59.5%
Total 39,805 22.6% 77.4%
Science and Engineering
Agriculture and related subjects 2,360 37.9% 62.1%
Architecture, building and planning 7,835 64.5% 35.5%
Biological Sciences 24,010 34.8% 65.2%
Engineering and Technology 28,690 83.9% 16.1%
Computer Science 15,185 81.6% 18.4%
Mathematical Sciences 4,475 59.0% 41.0%
Physical Sciences 11,915 56.3% 43.7%
Veterinary Science 1,600 19.7% 80.3%
Total 96,070 62.9% 37.1%
Business and Social Studies
Business and Administrative studies 43,585 42.7% 57.3%
Law 10,395 38.3% 61.7%
Mass Communication and documentation 4,535 41.7% 58.3%
Social Studies 27,205 30.2% 69.8%
Total 85,720 38.1% 61.9%
Education and the Arts
Creative Arts & Design 20,585 33.3% 66.7%
Education 16,150 25.0% 75.0%
Historical & Philosophical Studies 11,255 41.5% 58.5%
Languages 12,180 28.7% 71.3%
Total 60,170 31.7% 68.3%
Combined (7) 10,605 41.8% 58.2%

 Table 199 Distribution of students by subjects and gender, Scotland

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2016-17

Table 10b

Modern Apprenticeships

The proportion of Modern Apprentices who are female in Fife compares favourably with the national rate (39.9% for Fife, 39.8% for Scotland). Females are under-represented in Modern Apprenticeships when compared to the percentage of females aged 16-24 employed in Fife (39.9% / 54.9% respectively), only in the 20-24 age group is the proportion more balanced at 47.6% female to 52.4%.

Figure 66 Age and gender breakdown for Modern Apprenticeships in Fife

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

STEM starts for female is low nationally (6.6%) and lower in Fife at 6.1%

Figure 67 Gender breakdown for STEM Modern Apprenticeships in Fife and Scotland

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017 

Figure 68 Gender breakdown for MAs, Fife and Scotland

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

There clear gender profiles in the apprenticeships frameworks, that are consistent with patterns at national level. 99.1% of Building and 98.6% of Automotive apprentices were male. 95.7% of Hairdressing & Barbering and 92% of Social Services and Health apprentices were female.

Figure 69 Gender breakdown and MA choices, Fife

Source: SDS (2017) Fife Equality Summary 2016-2017

Work

Employment and labour market

Across Scotland, women account for 49% of the labour market, with 42% of women employed in Scotland work part-time compared to 13% of men. Women account for 76% of all part-time workers in Scotland[5]. The Close the Gap partnership also reported in 2017 on persistent patterns of occupational segregation:

  • Around 80% of administrative and secretarial workers and those in personal service jobs are women. While women are more likely to work in the public sector (67% local government and 81% NHS), only a third of chief executives in the sector are women.
  • 97% of childcare and early years education workers are women and 98% of classroom assistants are women.
  • Less than 3% of chartered civil engineers in Scotland are women.
  • Only 10% of senior managers in science engineering and technology professions are women.
  • Scotland’s Modern Apprenticeship programme continues to be acutely segregated by gender, where women account for only 2% of construction apprentices, 20% of manufacturing apprentices, 97% of childcare apprentices, and 93% of hairdressing apprentices.

Full-time employment is usually gendered, and this the case in Fife at 56.8% of women in full time jobs, compared to 90.6% of men, the gap is wider locally than nationally.

  Employment Employment – Men Employment – Women Full-time employed Full-time employed – Men Full-time employed – Women
Scotland 74.3 77.8 70.9 73.1 87.8 57.7
Fife 74.8 81.0 69.0 74.3 90.6 56.8

Table 200 Employment rates and levels by age in Fife and Scotland in 2017

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey (22 May 2018)

Between 2016 and 2017, 81% of men in Fife were in employment, which is higher than the national average (77.8%) and is a change of +3.8% over the previous year. There are also more female in employment (+1.1% change) but a slightly lower proportion than the national average (69% vs 70.9%).

Men in employment 
  2015 2016 2017   Change over year
Rate (%) Level Rate (%) Level Rate (%) Level   Rate (%pts) Level
Scotland 76.2 1,323,200 76.9 1,334,400 77.8 1,345,700   0.9 11,300
Fife 76.8 87,400 77.2 88,400 81.0 90,300   3.8 1,900

Table 201 Employment rates and levels for Men in Fife and Scotland, 2015-2017

Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey (22 May 2018) 1.2

Women in employment 
  2015 2016 2017   Change over year  
Rate (%) Level Rate (%) Level Rate (%) Level   Rate (%pts) Level  
Scotland 70.1 1,259,700 69.3 1,246,600 70.9 1,272,300   1.6 25,800  
Fife 69.7 84,500 67.9 85,200 69.0 82,900   1.1 -2,300  

Table 202 Employment rates and levels for Women in Fife and Scotland, 2015-2017

Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey (22 May 2018) 1.3

Gender and race in employment

A census based ONS FOI 2016 request[6] showed at national level some of the effect of intersection of gender and race[7]. 71% of white females employed, compared to 44.4% of ethnic minority females, contrasted to 76.2% of white males and 76.1% of ethnic minority males. In 2011, 48.2% of ethnic minority females aged 16-64 were economically inactive:

Aged 16-64 employment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 2,377,100 3,233,200 73.5 0.9
ethnic minority 92,300 156,000 59.2 6.0
white males 1,205,900 1,582,800 76.2 1.3
ethnic minority males 55,400 72,800 76.1 7.7
white females 1,171,200 1,650,300 71.0 1.3
ethnic minority females 36,900 83,300 44.4 8.2

 

16+ unemployment rate: numerator denominator % conf
white 144,400 2,600,700 5.6 0.5
ethnic minority 8,900 102,200 8.7 4.1
white males 86,000 1,340,600 6.4 0.8
ethnic minority males 2,700 58,400 4.6 4.1
white females 58,400 1,260,000 4.6 0.7
ethnic minority females 6,200 43,800 14.2 7.6

 

Aged 16-64 who are economically inactive numerator denominator % conf
white 713,000 3,233,200 22.1 0.9
ethnic minority 54,800 156,000 35.1 5.8
white males 291,700 1,582,800 18.4 1.2
ethnic minority males 14,700 72,800 20.2 7.2
white females 421,300 1,650,300 25.5 1.3
ethnic minority females 40,100 83,300 48.2 8.2

Table 203 Employment by age, gender and ethnic, Scotland

Source: ONS (2016) FOI – Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

In November 2018, there was a higher proportion of male claimants in Fife (4.7%) than females (2.0%). To note is that under Universal Credit there is a broader span of claimants are required to look for work than under Jobseeker’s Allowance. As Universal Credit Full Service was rolled out in Fife, the number of people recorded as being on the Claimant Count also rose:

  Fife
(Numbers)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
All People 8,590 3.7 2.7
Males 5,335 4.7 3.5
Females 3,255 2.7 2.0

Table 204 ONS Claimant count by age and gender – not seasonally adjusted
Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife (November 2018)

By contrast, in May 2018, there was a higher proportion of male claimants in Fife (4.5%) than females (2.2%), however in both cases this is higher than in the previous year and also higher than the national level:

  Fife
(Numbers)
Fife
(%)
Scotland
(%)
All People 7,765 3.3 2.6
Males 5,105 4.5 3.5
Females 2,660 2.2 1.7

Table 205 ONS Claimant count by age and gender – not seasonally adjusted
Source: Nomis: Labour Market Profile – Fife (May 2018 snapshot)

Earnings and paygaps

People of working age in Fife are paid on average £482.4 per week, which is somewhat less than Scotland’s average of £530.0 per week, however gross weekly pay has increased by 4.9% compared to 2.6% nationally in the past year. The highest increase was for female part-time employees, with a change of +9.7%. Figures for part-time male employees were too low to be measured reliably.

Those figures indicate a gender paygap between male and female workers at national level to be £198.1 weekly (£10301.20 per year before tax) and in Fife of £156.60 weekly (£8143.2 per year before tax), when comparing all types of employment.

For full-time employment, the paygap in Fife is £77.6 per week (£4035.20) per year, and £115.5 nationally (£6006 per year). For part-time employment, there is a pay advantage (i.e. women earn on average more than men) of £36.5 weekly (£1898 per year).

  Fife Scotland
Gross Weekly pay Mean (£) Year % change Mean (£) Year % change
All 482.4 4.9 530.0 2.6
For male employee 564.8 1.9 633.9 1.9
For female employee 408.2 8.0 435.8 3.9
         
For full-time employee 599.7 4.7 659.1 3.4
For part-time employee 226.2 1.4 231.2 4.5
         
For male full-time employee 632.0 4.0 707.6 3.1
For male part-time employee 198.3 -22.3 211.2 -1.0
         
For female full-time employee 554.4 5.9 592.1 4.1
For female part-time employee 234.8 9.7 237.3 6.2

Table 206 Gross Weekly Earnings in Fife and Scotland
Source: ONS (25 October 2018) – Earnings and hours worked, place of work by local authority: ASHE Table 7

  Number   Annual   Annual
  of jobsb   percentage   percentage
Description (thousand) Median change Mean change
Paid hours worked – Total – For all employee jobs    
United Kingdom 26,417 37.0 0.0 33.2 -0.3
Scotland 2,310 36.0 0.0 32.8 -0.5
Fife 124 36.0 0.0 32.8 1.3
Paid hours worked – Total – For male employee jobs    
United Kingdom 13,347 37.5 0.0 36.9 -0.3
Scotland 1,098 37.5 0.0 36.6 -0.5
Fife 59 37.5 0.0 36.3 -0.6
Paid hours worked – Total – For female employee jobs    
United Kingdom 13,070 33.5 -0.1 29.4 -0.2
Scotland 1,211 34.2 -1.0 29.3 -0.3
Fife 65 33.9 5.4 29.6 3.1
Paid hours worked – Total – For full-time employee jobs    
United Kingdom 18,899 37.5 0.0 39.2 0.3
Scotland 1,613 37.5 0.0 38.8 0.2
Fife 85 37.5 0.0 38.8 0.3
Paid hours worked – Total – For part-time employee jobs    
United Kingdom 7,518 18.7 -1.4 18.0 -1.2
Scotland 697 19.6 -0.1 18.7 0.2
Fife 39 20.0 2.7 19.7 3.1
Paid hours worked – Total – For male full-time employee jobs    
United Kingdom 11,372 38.9 0.1 40.3 0.3
Scotland 935 38.4 0.8 40.0 0.3
Fife 50 38.8 0.5 39.6 0.1
Paid hours worked – Total – For male part-time employee jobs  
United Kingdom 1,975 17.8 -1.0 17.4 -1.4
Scotland 163 17.5 -2.7 17.5 -0.6
Fife 9 18.0 -6.7 18.5 -7.0
Paid hours worked – Total – For female full-time employee jobs  
United Kingdom 7,527 37.4 0.0 37.6 0.3
Scotland 678 37.0 0.0 37.3 0.1
Fife 35 37.0 1.8 37.7 0.6
Paid hours worked – Total – For female part-time employee jobs  
United Kingdom 5,542 19.0 -1.9 18.2 -1.1
Scotland 534 20.0 0.0 19.1 0.5
Fife 30 20.0 3.4 20.1 6.3

Table 207 Employee Job distribution and hours worked – UK, Scotland and Fife

Source: ONS (25 October 2018) – Earnings and hours worked, place of work by local authority: ASHE Table 7

Forced labour and trafficking

Exploitation cases have risen by +21% across the UK between 2017Q4 and 2018Q1, but it remains quite low nationally with just over 3%[8] of all UK referrals to the NRM being sent to Police Scotland.

There are no precise figures for possible levels in Fife. Nationally, we know that exploitation mainly affects adults, and mainly concerns labour exploitation (27 out of 53 cases).

Adult / Minor (Exploited as) Location of Claimed Exploitation 2018 Q1 Total 2017 Q4
UK UK and Overseas Overseas Not Known  
Adult 23 6 6 10 45 46  
Minor 6 0 0 2 8 12  
Total 29 6 6 12 53 58  

Figure 70 Number of exploitation cases across age groups, Scotland

The 53 referrals were comprised of 18 females (34%) and 35 males (66%). There were 45(85%) individuals referred for adult exploitation categories and 8 (15%) referred for exploitation whilst a minor. Victims from Vietnam and China constituted just under half (26 out of 53) cases.

  Adult (Exploited as) Adult Total Minor (Exploited As) Minor Total 2018 Q1 Total
Claimed Nationality Domestic Servitude Labour Exploitation Sexual Exploitation Unknown Exploitation Labour Exploitation Sexual Exploitation Unknown Exploitation  
Vietnam 2 5 2 1 10 6 0 0 6 16  
China 0 8 0 2 10 0 0 0 0 10  
India 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5  
Nigeria 0 1 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 4  
Pakistan 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3  
Romania 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 3  
Namibia 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 2  
Albania 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Bangladesh 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Bulgaria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1  
Egypt 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Poland 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Somalia 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Sri Lanka 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Sudan 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Syria 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Zimbabwe 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  
Total 2 27 12 4 45 6 1 1 8 53  

Table 208 Nationalities of exploited adults and minor

However, gender patterns for types of exploitation are evident with 10 out 18 cases (55.5%) for females related to sexual orientation and 24 out of 35 cases for females related to labour exploitation (68.6%).

Locations Female Total All cases Q1 2018l
UK UK and Overseas Overseas Not Known
Adult – Domestic Servitude 0 0 0 0 0 2
Adult – Labour Exploitation 0 1 0 2 3 27
Adult – Sexual Exploitation 5 1 1 3 10 12
Adult – Unknown Exploitation 0 0 1 1 2 4
Minor – Labour Exploitation 0 0 0 1 1 6
Minor – Sexual Exploitation 1 0 0 0 1 1
Minor – Unknown Exploitation 0 0 0 1 1 1
Total 6 2 2 8 18 53

Table 209 Claimed Exploitation Type, for females, Scotland

Locations Male Total All cases Q1 2018
UK UK and Overseas Overseas Not Known
Adult – Domestic Servitude 2 0 0 0 2 2
Adult – Labour Exploitation 15 4 3 2 24 27
Adult – Sexual Exploitation 1 0 1 0 2 12
Adult – Unknown Exploitation 0 0 0 2 2 4
Minor – Labour Exploitation 5 0 0 0 5 6
Minor – Sexual Exploitation 0 0 0 0 0 1
Minor – Unknown Exploitation 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 23 4 4 4 35 53

Table 210 Claimed Exploitation Type, for males, Scotland

Source: National Crime Agency (10 May 2018) National Referral Mechanism Statistics

Living Standards

Poverty

Poverty rates tend to be higher for single working age adults than the population as a whole and is even between males and females. In 2015-16, 27% of single working age women without children were in poverty after housing costs, compared with 27% of single working age men[9].

Poverty rates after housing costs for female lone parents were at 45% in 2015-16 while poverty before housing costs for lone parents rose to 31% in 2015-16.

Figure 71 Poverty AHC across, Men, Women and female lone parents, Scotland

Source: Scottish government (2016) Poverty equality analysis

Carers

The 2011 census reports 34,828 carers in Fife, which at 9.5% of the population is directly comparable to the national average (9.3%), along with other trends that are also similar: the majority of carers are female (59.3%), employed (51.9%) and 19.9% are aged 65 or over, with 5.4% of Fifers aged 65+ care for over 35 hours a week. A higher proportion of males ages 50-64 provide care in Fife compared to Scotland (36.9% vs 34.9%).

  Fife Scotland
% Carers who are female 59.3 59.2
% Carers who are employed (excluding full-time students) 51.9 53.2
% Carers aged under 16 1.9 2.0
% Carers aged 65 and over 19.9 19.3

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011 – Carers

Fife Number of people Age group % Male / Female %
Age Male Female Male Female Male Female
0 to 24 1,030 1,370 7.3% 6.6% 42.9% 57.1%
25 to 49 4,660 7,870 32.8% 38.1% 37.2% 62.8%
50 to 64 5,230 7,750 36.9% 37.5% 40.3% 59.7%
65+ 3,270 3,650 23.0% 17.7% 47.3% 52.7%
All people 14,190 20,640 100.0% 100.0% 40.7% 59.3%

Table 211 Age and gender distribution of carers, Fife and Scotland

Source: Scotland’s Carers (Census 2011 based)

Health

General Health

Between 2013-2016, 72% of adults in Fife report to have very good or good health, slightly lower than the national average. 20% reported fair health, and 9% bad or very bad health. There were no clear gender effects:

Figure 72 Self-assessed general health, Fife adults, 2013-2016 combined
Source: Scottish Health Survey (15 Jan 2018)

Mortality

In 2017, there were 4,189 deaths in Fife. This is a 2.4% increase from 4,091 deaths in 2016. Of these 4,189 deaths, 2,089 (49.9%) were female and 2,100 (50.1%) were male.

In Fife, the standardised death rate increased from 10.6 per 1,000 population in 2016 to 10.8 in 2017. In comparison, the rate in Scotland overall increased from 10.5 to 10.7.

In 2017, Fife was the council area with the 11th highest standardised death rate. Between 2016 and 2017, 12 councils saw a decrease in standardised death rate and 19 councils saw an increase. There was 1 council that saw no change.

Figure 73 Deaths by gender in Fife
Source: NRS (June 2018) Fife Profile

Life Expectancy

In Fife, life expectancy at birth was higher for females (81.2 years) than for males (77.6 years) in 2014-16. Male life expectancy at birth has increased more rapidly than female life expectancy at birth between 2001-03 and 2014-16. In Fife, life expectancy at birth is higher than at Scotland level for both females and males.

Figure 74 Life Expectancy at birth, by gender in Fife
Source: NRS (June 2018) Fife Profile

Healthy Life Expectancy

Life expectancy (LE[10]) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE[11]) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a ‘healthy’ state. HLE is a key summary measure of a population’s health. In Fife, LE and HLE in Fife loosely follows Scotland’s averages, with 76.9 and 63.3 years for males and 81.0 and 65.4 for females respectively.

Males

  • Men in Fife are expected to live an average of 13.6 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 13.5 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest male LE at birth (80.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest male LE at birth (72.6 years).
  • HLE at birth broadly followed the same pattern, with East Dunbartonshire having the highest male HLE (68.3 years), and Glasgow City the lowest (55.9 years).
  • This means that a boy born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 7.4 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.

 

LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected period in ‘not healthy’ health
LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
Fife 76.9 76.6 77.2 63.3 63.2 63.4 13.6
SCOTLAND 76.6 76.5 76.7 63.1 63.1 63.2 13.5

 Table 212 Healthy Life Expectancy, Males, Fife and Scotland

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle

Females

  • Women in Fife are expected to live an average of 15.7 years in a ‘not healthy’ condition, similar to Scotland’s average of 15.6 years
  • East Dunbartonshire had the highest female LE at birth (83.4 years), and Glasgow City the lowest female LE at birth (78.4 years).
  • This means that a girl born during 2009-2013, subject to the self-assessed health and mortality patterns for Glasgow City during that period, would be expected to live in a healthy state for 6.9 years less than a similar baby experiencing the patterns for Fife.
LE 95% CIs HLE 95% CIs Expected period in ‘not healthy’ health
LE Lower Upper HLE Lower Upper (LE-HLE)
Fife 81.0 80.8 81.3 65.4 65.3 65.5 15.7
SCOTLAND 80.8 80.8 80.9 65.3 65.2 65.3 15.6

Table 213 Healthy Life Expectancy, Males, Fife and Scotland

Source: ScotPHO (01 September 2017) Health life expectancy 2009-2013 Cycle

Health outcomes

55% of people limited in day to day activities due to long term health problem or disability in Fife are female. There are more males in Fife aged 0 to 34, and males also have the highest proportion of this age band whose day-to-day activities are limited a lot due long term health problem or disability. The highest proportion is in the 10-14/15 age groups at 67%-68%. In the age group of 85+, this is reversed, with 71% being female:

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
0 to 4 188 103 54.8% 85 45.2%
5 to 9 345 219 63.5% 126 36.5%
10 to 14 467 313 67.0% 154 33.0%
15 103 70 68.0% 33 32.0%

  

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
16 to 17 193 113 58.5% 80 41.5%
18 to 19 209 113 54.1% 96 45.9%
20 to 24 511 282 55.2% 229 44.8%
25 to 29 593 309 52.1% 284 47.9%
30 to 34 726 386 53.2% 340 46.8%
35 to 39 1149 546 47.5% 603 52.5%
40 to 44 1696 771 45.5% 925 54.5%
45 to 49 2016 831 41.2% 1185 58.8%
50 to 54 2498 1132 45.3% 1366 54.7%
55 to 59 3021 1412 46.7% 1609 53.3%
60 to 64 3702 1906 51.5% 1796 48.5%
65 to 69 3284 1680 51.2% 1604 48.8%

 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 34829 15668 45.0% 19161 55.0%
65 to 69 3284 1680 51.2% 1604 48.8%
70 to 74 3258 1496 45.9% 1762 54.1%
75 to 79 3368 1484 44.1% 1884 55.9%
80 to 84 3289 1283 39.0% 2006 61.0%
85 and over 4213 1219 28.9% 2994 71.1%

 Table 214 – Limiting long term health problem or disability (Day-to-day activities limited a lot) by age group and sex; Fife

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Similar patterns exist for people who are ‘limited a lot’:

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
0 to 4 266 160 60.2% 106 39.8%
5 to 9 706 449 63.6% 257 36.4%
10 to 14 991 623 62.9% 368 37.1%
15 240 143 59.6% 97 40.4%

 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
16 to 17 495 269 54.3% 226 45.7%
18 to 19 423 232 54.8% 191 45.2%
20 to 24 1128 505 44.8% 623 55.2%
25 to 29 1092 481 44.0% 611 56.0%
30 to 34 1169 490 41.9% 679 58.1%
35 to 39 1565 708 45.2% 857 54.8%
40 to 44 2059 946 45.9% 1113 54.1%
45 to 49 2559 1171 45.8% 1388 54.2%
50 to 54 2877 1319 45.8% 1558 54.2%
55 to 59 3084 1455 47.2% 1629 52.8%
60 to 64 4111 1856 45.1% 2255 54.9%

 

Age Day-to-day activities limited a lot Male Female
Total 39417 18043 45.8% 21374 54.2%
60 to 64 4111 1856 45.1% 2255 54.9%
65 to 69 4057 1919 47.3% 2138 52.7%
70 to 74 3869 1805 46.7% 2064 53.3%
75 to 79 3634 1620 44.6% 2014 55.4%
80 to 84 2854 1145 40.1% 1709 59.9%
85 and over 2238 747 33.4% 1491 66.6%

 Table 215 Limiting long term health problem or disability (Day-to-day activities limited a lot) by age group and sex; Fife

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

When comparing population who are ‘not limited’, there is a more even distribution across males and females: 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
0 to 4 20321 10394 51.1% 9927 48.9%
5 to 9 18105 9176 50.7% 8929 49.3%
10 to 14 18728 9413 50.3% 9315 49.7%
15 3937 1963 49.9% 1974 50.1%

 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
16 to 17 8164 4021 49.3% 4143 50.7%
18 to 19 8900 4453 50.0% 4447 50.0%
20 to 24 22502 10818 48.1% 11684 51.9%
25 to 29 19117 9480 49.6% 9637 50.4%
30 to 34 18892 9202 48.7% 9690 51.3%
35 to 39 20321 9962 49.0% 10359 51.0%
40 to 44 23690 11760 49.6% 11930 50.4%
45 to 49 23432 11552 49.3% 11880 50.7%
50 to 54 20777 10515 50.6% 10262 49.4%
55 to 59 16876 8336 49.4% 8540 50.6%
60 to 64 17183 8419 49.0% 8764 51.0%

 

Age Day-to-day activities not limited Male Female
Total 290952 143232 49.2% 147720 50.8%
65 to 69 12188 5826 47.8% 6362 52.2%
70 to 74 8525 3940 46.2% 4585 53.8%
75 to 79 5423 2415 44.5% 3008 55.5%
80 to 84 2587 1093 42.2% 1494 57.8%
85 and over 1284 494 38.5% 790 61.5%

 Table 216 Limiting long term health problem or disability (Day-to-day activities not limited) by age group and sex; Fife

Source: Scotland’s Census 2011

Visual Impairment and Vision Loss

Fife Society for the Blind reported that by September 2017, 1145 people registered as partially sighted and 1010 registered as Blind, and that this was evenly distributed across males and females:

  No. of people registered as Partially Sighted   No. of people registered as Blind
Female Male Total   Female Male Total
Under 16 17 24 41   10 12 22
16 – 29 31 38 69   23 27 50
30 – 49 44 73 117   42 54 96
50 – 64 73 65 138   77 79 156
65 – 74 66 70 136   50 56 106
75 & over 421 223 644   392 188 580
      1145       1010

Table 217 Age and Gender of people with various sight impairment, Fife
Source: Fife Society for the Blind – September 2017, per request

Mental health

The national mean scores on the WEMWBS have been consistent since 2008 and in 2016, (for men and women aged 16 and over) was 49.8[12]. There has also been a consistent gender element in the scores, with men aged 34-44 tending to have the lowest mean score of all age groups (49.4) and women aged 64-74 had the highest mean score (51.1).

 

WEMWBS scores

Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
Men
Mean 50.3 49.1 49.4 49.5 50.1 50.8 50.4 49.9
Women
Mean 47.9 50.7 49.9 49.5 49.9 51.1 50.6 49.9
All adults
Mean 49.1 49.9 49.7 49.5 50.0 51.0 50.5 49.9

Table 218 Mental health wellbeing scores

Source: The Scottish Health Survey 2016

The ScotPHO Mental Health Profile for Fife, shows on average that young people do less well than the national average. There are also gender effects that noticeable, with S2 males doing worse on indicator 2 (i.e. showing a lack of prosocial behaviour) and doing better on indicator 3 (showing emotional symptoms). For S2 females, this is reversed with females doing comparatively better on prosocial behaviour but worse on all other indicators. S4 females in Fife also score lower than the national average on emotional symptoms and emotional / behavioural problems than S4 males.

Suicide Rates

Under a new coding system implemented in 2011[13], 680 probable suicides were recorded nationally in 2016, 77% of which were male deaths (522 out of 158).

  All such deaths   Sex   Nature of death 2
  Number registered in year 5-year moving average 3   Males Females   Intentional self-harm Undetermined intent
2011 889     639 250   527 362
2012 830     608 222   569 261
2013 795 776   611 184   601 194
2014 696 744   497 199   549 147
2015 672 714   476 196   556 116
2016 728     517 211   603 125
2017 680     522 158   587 93

Table 219 Deaths for which the underlying cause was classified as ‘intentional self-harm’ or ‘event of undetermined intent’ by sex and by nature of death, Scotland, 2011 to 2017

Source: NRS (2017) Probable Suicides Table 1

In Fife, the number of probable suicides recorded has been going down over the past 5 years (with 43 recorded in 2016) and increased in 2017 to 7.6% the highest recorded:

Year All Scotland Fife
2011 889 63 7.1%
2012 830 58 7.0%
2013 795 68 8.6%
2014 696 58 8.3%
2015 672 41 6.1%
2016 728 43 5.9%
2017 680 52 7.6%

Table 220 Number and proportions of probable suicides in Fife

Source: NRS (2017) Probable Suicides Table 5

Justice and Personal Security

Risk of crime

Across Scotland, the risk of being a victim of a crime is slightly higher for males (13.9%) than for females (13. The 16-24 age group is at 20.4% the most likely to be victim of all SCJS crime (19.5.%) and mainly in urban (14.8%) areas of deprivation (19.4%). 

2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2012/13 2014/15 2016/17
All 20.40% 19.30% 17.80% 16.90% 14.50% 13.40%
Male 21.20% 20.40% 18.40% 18.20% 15.60% 13.90%
Female 19.70% 18.20% 17.20% 15.80% 13.60% 13.00%
16-24 32.20% 26.40% 25.60% 23.70% 20.40% 19.50%
25-44 24.70% 25.10% 22.30% 21.60% 18.40% 17.30%
45-59 20.10% 18.80% 17.60% 16.30% 15.30% 12.70%
60+ 9.50% 9.20% 8.70% 8.80% 6.80% 7.20%
15% most deprived areas 26.00% 25.20% 21.30% 21.30% 21.20% 19.40%
Rest of Scotland 19.40% 18.30% 17.20% 16.10% 13.40% 12.30%
Urban 22.20% 20.90% 19.50% 18.60% 15.50% 14.80%
Rural 13.00% 12.10% 10.20% 9.40% 9.90% 6.80%

 Table 221 Proportion of adults experiencing SCJS crime in Scotland

Source: Scottish Crime & Justice Survey 2016/17 (27 March 2018): Main Findings p22 

Characteristics of Offenders

The Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2015/16  reports that where victims could provide information about the offender, offenders were much more likely to be male (78%) than female (13%).

 
Property crime Violent crime All SCJS crime
Gender
Male 69% 84% 78%
Female 12% 13% 13%
People of both sexes 16% 2% 8%
Don’t know 3% 1%
Refused

 Table 222 Percentage of SCJS crimes where respondent was able to say anything about gender of offender(s), Scotland

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2015/16 Table 3.14

People convicted and aggravations

Across Scotland, in 2016-2017, 12,252 people were convicted with aggravations, the majority of which (10,830) were on charges of domestic aggravators. This was the most common aggravators for both males and females; but in different proportions: 9,501 were by males and 1,563 were by females.

  2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 % change 2015-16 to 2016-17
Male and Female        
All aggravators 13,751 13,828 12,252 -11%
Domestic 12,441 12,376 10,830 -12%
Racial 701 761 721 -5%
Religious 241 247 277 12%
Sexual orientation 320 369 356 -4%
Disability 40 68 54 -21%
Transgender 8 7 14 100%

 

  2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 % change 2015-16 to 2016-17
Male        
All aggravators   11,884   11,980   10,689 -11%
   
Domestic 10,796 10,741 9,501 -12%
Racial 573 633 588 -7%
Religious 213 230 258 12%
Sexual orientation 265 316 290 -8%
Disability 33 55 41 -25%
Transgender 4 5 11 120%

 

  2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 % change 2015-16 to 2016-17
Female        
All aggravators 1,867 1,848 1,563 -15%
   
Domestic 1,645 1,635 1,329 -19%
Racial 128 128 133 4%
Religious 28 17 19 12%
Sexual orientation 55 53 66 25%
Disability 7 13 13 0%
Transgender 4 2 3 50%

Table 223 People convicted with an aggravator recorded against the main charge by gender

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2016-17 (27 February 2018)

Sexual crimes and domestic abuse

MARAC

In Fife in 2017/2018 there were 4418 domestic abuse incidents recorded by the police, with 411 high risk cases were discussed at MARAC. This compares to 2016/2017 in Fife, 4,425 domestic abuse incidents were reported to the Police[14]. Out of 302 case discussions at MARAC for the highest risk domestic abuse cases, 301 involved female victims, 3 same sex partners / ex-partners (2 female and 1 male).  571 involved children, with 66 child protection concerns noted (including 17 unborn babies).

The profile of victims and offenders is comparable to the national figures, with the average age of victims of 31 years, within a range of 15 to 70 years. Perpetrators tend to be slightly older, with an average age of 34 years, within a range of 16 to 66 years.

Source: MARAC Fife Annual Report 2016/2017

While in general the incidence of crime is diminishing, it is important to note that both across Fife and Scotland, there has been a rise in recorded Sexual Crimes recently:

Local authority area Non-sexual crimes of violence Sexual crimes Total crimes Total offences Total crimes and offences
2016-17          
Fife 439 893 13,425 18,117 31,542
SCOTLAND 7,164 10,822 238,651 288,961 527,612
2015-16          
Fife 410 834 13,476 20,378 33,854
SCOTLAND 6,775 10,273 246,243 339,193 585,436

Table 224 Crimes and offences recorded Fife and Scotland

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey – Comparison of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 

Prison population

The population of females in prison has consistently been low and reducing, with figures for 2015/2016 of 404 out of 7,271 in total (4.8%). 

  Male Female Total % female
2004/05 6,444 332 6,776 4.9%
2005/06 6,521 335 6,856 4.9%
2006/07 6,833 354 7,187 4.9%
2007/08 7,004 372 7,376 5.0%
2008/09 7,413 414 7,827 5.3%
2009/10 7,538 426 7,964 5.3%
2010/11 7,418 436 7,854 5.6%
2011/12 7,710 469 8,179 5.7%
2012/13 7,598 459 8,057 5.7%
2013/14 7,462 432 7,894 5.5%
2015/16 7,271 404 7,675 5.3%
2016/17 7,185 366 7,552 4.8%

Source: UK Prison Population Statistics – Parliament UK Number CBP-04334, 23 July 2018 

Participation

Political and civic participation and representation

The EHRC ‘Pressing for progress: women’s rights and gender equality in 2018’ report highlighted that in the UK, women make up 32% of representatives in the House of Commons[15], this is was a record high following the 2017 election, but still places the UK at 41st globally in May 2018[16]. Across all MPs, only 4% are ethnic minority women[17].

In Scotland, SHRC report to the UN[18] similar patterns are visible with just over 35% of MSPs, and 29% of councillors are women in Scotland.[19]  All of Scotland’s female MSPs are white and non-disabled and the nation regressed in global rankings from 4th place in 2003 to 27th in 2017.[20]

Regulated public bodies had more women than men appointed in 2015/2016 for the first time.  However, overall women accounted for only 42% of all regulated board members in that same period[21] and 26% of public bodies are headed by women.

In the NHS, occupational segregation is illustrated well by the fact that 81% of the total NHS workforce is comprised of women, but 81% of NHS Board chairs are men.[22] Women are also underrepresented in Scotland’s judiciary, accounting for just over 25% of all judicial office holders in 2017.[23]

[1] EHRC (March 2017) Equality Act 2010 – Handbook for Advisors [Scotland] p9

[2] Scottish Government (2010) What does gender have to do with violence against women?

[3] Scottish Government (2017) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – Education and Training Strategy for Scotland

[4] Fife College Mainstreaming report (April 2017) p12

[5] Close the Gap (2018) https://www.closethegap.org.uk/content/gap-statistics/

[6] Employment Rates by Ethnicity, Gender and Age Group

[7] Note that there is wide variation in the statistics derived from lower numbers in the population

[8] NRM 2018 Statistics

[9] Scottish Government (August 2016) Poverty Analysis

[10] Healthy life expectancy: key points. ScotPHO (2016). Source: http://www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/healthy-life-expectancy/key-points

[11] As above

[12] Scottish Government (2017) Health of Scotland’s population – Mental Health

[13] ‘drug abuse’ deaths from ‘acute intoxication’ with undetermined intent, that would previously have been counted under ‘mental and behavioural disorders’, are now counted under ‘poisoning’ and some of them will be counted as ‘probable suicides’.

[14] MARAC Annual report 2016/2017

[15] Keen, R. and Cracknell, R. (2018) ‘Women in Parliament and Government

[16] Inter-Parliamentary Union (2018) Women in national parliaments: world classification

[17] Audickas, L. and Apostolova, V. (2017), ‘Ethnic minorities in politics and public life’.

[18] SHRC(2018): UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

[19] Women in Parliament and Government (February 2018) House of Commons Briefing Paper Number SN01250

[20] Gender Matters Roadmap: Towards Women’s Equality in Scotland (September 2017) Engender

[21] Commissioner for Ethical Standards in Public Life in Scotland Annual Report 2015/2016

[22] Gender Matters Roadmap: Towards Women’s Equality in Scotland (September 2017) Engender

[23] 2017 Judicial Diversity statistics – Gender and Age (September 2017)